UNIDO Industrial Statistics database 2-digit level of ISIC Code (Revision 3)
I. General Information
The UNIDO Industrial Statistics database at the 2-digit level of ISIC Code is a new product of UNIDO. The database combines historical time series data derived from INDSTAT3 ISIC Rev. 2 with those of recent years derived from INDSTAT4 ISIC Rev. 3.
The database contains data for the period from 1963 to 2008 for 161 countries. The data are arranged at the 2-digit level of the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Revision 3, pertaining to the manufacturing sector, which comprises 23 industries. However, it should be noted that time period covered by the database, as well as item coverage, differ from country to country.
II. Data Description
SOURCES OF INFORMATION
Except for the index numbers of industrial production, data from non-OECD countries were collected from national statistical offices by UNIDO. Data from OECD member countries were collected by OECD and provided to UNIDO in order to achieve the worldwide coverage.
For those countries reporting data that are based on, or related to ISIC Rev.3: - Historical data, up to early 1990s, were mostly converted from ISIC Rev. 2-3 digits. - Data for later years were either aggregated from ISIC Rev.3 at 3- and 4-digit level or received directly from their respective sources.
For those countries still reporting data that are based on, or related to ISIC Rev.2: - All data were converted to ISIC Rev. 3-2 digits in order to include them in this new database.
All data are supplemented with estimates generated by UNIDO.
UPDATING THE DATABASE
Updates of the database are made annually and contain data for at least one additional year for most of the countries and may also include additional countries.
INDEX NUMBERS OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION
If not elsewhere specified, index numbers of industrial production were supplied by the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), New York. The indexes in the tables are compiled from national indexes that are calculated by use of the Laspeyres formula. The comparison base year is 2000.
III. Data Definition
CONTENT AND COVERAGE
The database contains annual time-series data on the following items:
Number of establishments Employment Wages and salaries Output Value added Gross fixed capital formation Number of female employees Index numbers of industrial production
These data pertain to manufacturing industries classified at the 2-digit level of ISIC (Revision 3) and are presented by Country, Industry and Year. The data are originally stored in the prevailing national currency values at current prices, and are also available in current US dollars (calculated by conversion of currency data from national currency into current US dollars, using the average period exchange rates as given in the International Financial Statistics (IFS) under series rf.
In the case of those countries that changed or devaluated its national currency in the past, data relating to years prior to devaluation or change have been converted from the former national currency using appropriate conversion rate.
The same applies to all member countries of the European Monetary Union (EMU), for which national data are expressed in Euros. Data relating to years prior to entry into the EMU have been converted from the former national currency using the appropriate irrevocable conversion rate (source: European CommissionÆs website < http://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/the_euro/the_euro6482_en.htm>).
The presentation facilitates comparisons within a country over time and ensures that the historical evolution (i.e. growth rates) is preserved.
Iv. Standard Concepts and Definitions
(1) Number of establishments and number of enterprises: An ôestablishmentö is ideally a unit that engages, under a single ownership or control, in one, or predominantly one, kind of activity at a single location; for example, workshop or factory. A ôkind-of-activity unitö differs from the establishment in that there is no restriction with respect to the geographical area in which a given kind of activity is carried out by a single legal entity. A ôlocal unitö, on the other hand, comprises all activities carried out under a single ownership or control at a single location and differs from the establishment-type of unit in that there is no restriction on the range of these activities. An ôenterpriseö is a legal entity possessing the right to conduct business in its own name; for example, to enter into contracts, own property, incur liability for debts, and establish bank accounts.
(2) Number of persons engaged and number of employees: The number of persons engaged is defined as the total number of persons who worked in or for the establishment during the reference year. However, home workers are excluded. The concept covers working proprietors, active business partners and unpaid family workers as well as employees. The figures reported refer normally to the average number of persons engaged during the reference year, obtained as the sum of the "average number of employees" during the year and the total number of other persons engaged measured for a single period of the year. The number of employees is including all persons engaged other than working proprietors, active business partners and unpaid family workers.
(3) Wages and salaries: Wages and salaries include all payments in cash or in kind paid to "employees" during the reference year in relation to work done for the establishment. Payments include: (a) direct wages and salaries; (b) remuneration for time not worked; (c) bonuses and gratuities; (d) housing allowances and family allowances paid directly by the employer; and (e) payments in kind. Excluded are employers' contributions in respect of their employees paid to social security, pension and insurance schemes, as well as the benefits received by employees under these schemes and severance and termination pay.
(4) Output: The measure of output normally reported is the census concept, which covers only activities of an industrial nature. The value of census output in the case of estimates compiled on a production basis comprises: (a) the value of all products of the establishment; (b) the net change between the beginning and the end of the reference period in the value of work in progress and stocks of goods to be shipped in the same condition as received; (c) the value of industrial work done or industrial services rendered to others; (d) the value of goods shipped in the same condition as received less the amount paid for these goods; and (e) the value of fixed assets produced during the period by the unit for its own use. In the case of estimates compiled on a shipment basis, the net change in the value of stocks of finished goods between the beginning and the end of the reference period is also included. Gross output is equivalent to census output plus the revenue from activities of a non-industrial nature. Valuation may be at factor costs, excluding all indirect taxes falling on production and including all current subsidies received in support of production activity, or at basic prices, excluding taxes on commodity and including commodity related subsidies, or in producers' prices, including all indirect taxes and excluding all subsidies.
(5) Value added: The measure of value added normally reported is the census concept, which is defined as the value of census output less the value of census input, which covers: (a) value of materials and supplies for production (including cost of all fuel and purchased electricity); and (b) cost of industrial services received (mainly payments for contract and commission work and repair and maintenance work). If input estimates are compiled on a "received" rather than on a "consumed" basis, the result needs to be adjusted for the net change between the beginning and the end of the period in the value of stocks of materials, fuel and other supplies.
Total value added is the national accounting concept. It is ideally represented by the contribution of the establishments in each branch of activity to the gross domestic product. For the measure of total value added, the cost of non-industrial services is deducted from and the receipts for non-industrial services are added to census value added. The estimates, whether in terms of census value added or total value added, may be gross of depreciation and other provisions for capital consumption. The valuation may be at factor costs, at basic prices or in producersÆ prices, depending on the treatment of indirect taxes and subsidies.
(6) Gross fixed capital formation: Gross fixed capital formation refers to the value of purchases and own-account construction of fixed assets during the reference year less the value of corresponding sales. The fixed assets covered are those (whether new or used) with a productive life of one year or more. These assets, which are intended for the use of the establishment include fixed assets made by the establishment's own labour force for its own use. Major additions, alterations and improvements to existing assets, which extend their normal economic life or raise their productivity are also included.
New fixed assets include all those that have not been previously used in the country. Thus, newly imported fixed assets are considered new whether or not used before they were imported. Used fixed assets include all those that have been previously used within the country. Transactions in fixed assets include: (a) land; (b) buildings, other construction and land improvements; (c) transport equipment; and (d) machinery and other equipment. Countries that have started implementation of recent recommendations for industrial statistics might have extended the coverage of fixed assets to products of research and development, computer software and database and other intellectual property products.
Assets acquired from others are valued at purchasers' prices, which cover all costs directly connected with the acquisition and installation of the items for use. In principle, assets produced on own account are also valued in this manner. However, it may frequently be necessary to value such own-account production at explicit cost, including any imputations that may be required in respect of the employed ownaccount labour. Assets produced by one establishment of a multi-establishment enterprise for the use of another establishment of the same enterprise should be valued by the receiving establishment as though purchased from outside the enterprise. Sales of assets should be valued at the actual amounts realized rather than at book values.