methods, notes and classification HICP (2015 = 100) - monthly data (index) methods, notes and classification

Harmonized Indices of Consumer Prices (HICP)

Inflation

The HICPs are economic indicators constructed to measure the changes over time in the prices of consumer goods and services acquired by households. The HICPs give comparable measures of inflation in the euro-zone, the EU, the European Economic Area and for other countries including accession and candidate countries. They are calculated according to a harmonised approach and a single set of definitions. They provide the official measure of consumer price inflation in the euro-zone for the purposes of monetary policy in the euro area and assessing inflation convergence as required under the Maastricht criteria.

HICP data, including backdata, is revisable under the terms set in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1921/2001. When updated (see release calendar), the database overwrites existing data with the revised data and those changes will only be flagged for a short period, generally until the next update.

If you are dealing with indexation you should bear in mind that HICP can be revised at any point in time. Revisions may also affect backdata. To trace revisions, please refer to the monthly HICP publication 'Data in Focus' (pdf).

Compendium of HICP reference documents - July 2013

Working document regarding Harmonised Indices of consumer prices, divided into two sections: Legislation and Recommendations.

Data

The full set of HICP data is available in the free on-line database (Prices/Harmonized Indices of Consumer Prices). You can customize your data extractions using the interfaces provided. HICP was rebased to 2005=100. More details on the practical implications of the rebasing can be found in the News Release 146/2005 of 16 November 2005. Available data (2005=100):

Monthly data:

* Index  
* annual rate of change  
* monthly rate of change  
* 12-month average rate of change  

Annual data:

* average index and rate of change

Weights:

* Country weights  
* Item weights 

Weights are revised yearly and released with the January data. Country weights for the current year can also be found in the Annex to the January inflation News release, published in February each year. Over 30 special aggregates have been created for economic analysis. These include, for example indices for goods, services, energy, or excluding some components as energy and unprocessed food. Special aggregates are revised according to the underlying classification's revision and the set aggregates were compiled to meet specific policies needs. Their definitions can be found in Eurostat's classifications server.

Data are not seasonally adjusted. Seasonally adjusted data can be found in the European Central Bank's website.

Main tables

HICP are part of a series of Euro-indicators that are designed to give a general overview of the euro area, European Union and Member State's economic situation.

The tables include, for the latest 12 months:

* Indices  
* Growth rates with respect to the previous month (M/M-1)  
* Growth rates with respect to the corresponding month of the previous year

Data are automatically updated on release dates (see release calendar) and are neither calendar nor seasonally adjusted.

Main headings (2005=100)
1. [All items (global index)][3]  
2. [Food][4]  
3. [Alcohol and tobacco][5]  
4. [Clothing][6]  
5. [Housing][7]  
6. [Household equipment][8]  
7. [Health][9]  
8. [Transport][10]  
9. [Communications][11]  
10. [Recreation and culture][12]  
11. [Education][13]  
12. [Hotels and restaurants][14]  
13. [Miscellaneous][15]  
Special aggregates

Further information and download options for the above tables can be found on the Euroindicators host page.

Structural indicators
* [Annual average rate of change][23]

Compendium

Compendium of HICP reference documents - July 2013

Working document regarding Harmonised Indices of consumer prices, divided into two sections: Legislation and Recommendations.

Available in English. The texts of section one 'Legislation', can be found in other EU languages on EUR-Lex website. See under 'Legislation'.

Compendium of HICP reference documents - 2001

This Compendium is a Working document divided into three sections: General references, Legislation and Guidelines.

* The first regroups two Reports to the Council giving an overview of the harmonisation process up to 1998 and up to 2000, respectively, and a document on the computation of the HICP that includes calculation formula, weightings, etc.  
* The second section includes the collection of HICP regulations adopted up to 2001  
* And the third section some guidelines. 

The Compendium is available in English, French and German. Texts of section two 'Legislation', including texts adopted after 2001, and the Reports to the Council included in section one, can be found in other EC languages on EUR-Lex website. See under 'Legislation'.

Metadata and national HICP practices

Reference Metadata

The HICP reference metadata gathers, under a standard structure, references and summary information regarding data quality and the production process in general.

With a view to making European Statistics more accessible and clear, the National Statistical Offices producing HICP data are also documenting their national practices under the same structure.

Links to the reference metadata and national metadata are listed below:

* [Eurostat's HICP reference metadata][26].    
* National HICP reference metadata: 

Belgium
France
Austria
Croatia
Bulgaria
Italy
Poland
Turkey
Czech Republic
Cyprus
Portugal
Denmark
Latvia
Romania
Iceland
Germany
Lithuania
Slovenia
Norway
Estonia
Luxembourg
Slovakia
Ireland
Hungary
Finland
Switzerland
Greece
Malta
Sweden
Spain
Netherlands
United Kingdom

For queries on national metadata, the concerned NSI should be contacted directly.

Consumer Price Recommendations

The Consumer Price Recommendations wiki-based site gathers methodological information concerning Harmonised Indices of Consumer Prices (HICP) and Housing Statistics.

It is the result of discussions between Eurostat and data producers (the National Statistical Offices), data users (the European Central Bank, Commission services and other) and international experts. This wiki will be continuously revised and updated following new methodological developments in the field.

Information is organised in different categories:

* Recommendations that are currently being developed
* Final Recommendations
* Methodological questions  from National Statistical Offices and Eurostat's answers
* Housing Statistics (owner-occupied housing and house price indices) 

House price index

House price index

The House Price Index (HPI) describes the price developments of all residential properties purchased by households (flats, detached houses, terraced houses, etc.), both newly built and existing, independently of their final use and independently of their previous owners. The Member States’ HPIs are compiled by the National Statistical Institutes. The euro area and the EU aggregate HPIs are compiled by Eurostat.

Further information is available in the Statistics Explained article on Housing Price Statistics and in the House price index metadata.

Data

The HPI data can be found in the house price index database and the HPI main table.

Data is also shown as part of the Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure Scoreboard (see further below).

Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure Scoreboard

The Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure (MIP) Scoreboard was released for the first time in February 2012 and is a set of early warning indicators system for surveilling macroeconomic imbalances. The alert system is based on these indicators, covering the major sources of macroeconomic imbalances, and on their respective 'alarm thresholds'.

In the context of the fundamental role played by housing markets in the current economic and financial crisis, the European Commission designated the House Price Index as one of the indicators in the MIP Scoreboard.

House Price Indices data used in the Scoreboard are taken from the data in the house price index database.

For more details on the please refer to the Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure Scoreboard webpage.

Experimental House price indices

Eurostat and National Statistical Institutes (NSIs) undertook a series of pilot projects to develop and compile housing price indices for Owner-Occupied Housing (OOH) in the framework of the HICP. As a key step towards producing the set of housing indicators, work has been done on the development of House Price Indices (HPIs).

These papers provide the experimental results from this research work, experimental house price indices for the EU, the euro area, Iceland and Norway, and explain their strengths and limitations.

Experimental house price indices - (2005Q1-2012Q2) - October 2012 Experimental house price indices - (2005Q1-2012Q1) - July 2012 Experimental house price indices - (2005Q1-2011Q4) - April 2012 Experimental house price indices - (2005Q4-2011Q3) - January 2012 Experimental house price indices - (2005Q3-2011Q2) - November 2011 Experimental house price indices - (2005Q2-2011Q1) - October 2011 Experimental house price indices - (2005Q1-2010Q4) - September 2011 Experimental house price indices - (2005Q1-2010Q3) - July 2011 Experimental house price indices - (2005Q1-2010Q2) - April 2011 Experimental house price indices - (2005Q1-2010Q1) - December 2010

Owner-Occupied housing

The Owner-Occupied Housing (OOH) price indices in the framework of HICP are established in Commission Regulation (EC) No 93/2013 of 1 February 2013.

Commission Regulation (EC) No 93/2013 makes reference to a Methodological manual which covers the most important principles and aspects of the methodological framework for Owner-Occupied Housing and House Price Indices (HPI) produced pursuant to the Regulation.

The Manual referred to in Commission Regulation (EC) No 93/2013 derives its principles from the material collected in the Detailed Technical Manual on Owner-Occupied Housing (version 2.0, March 2012).

The Detailed Technical Manual is grounded on the experiences that have been put forward by several European statistical offices participating in Eurostat-led OOH pilot work programmes since 2001. Although the primary goal of this detailed manual is to help NSI establishing an operational system of HPI and OOH indices following HICP standards, it may equally benefit all users who wish to learn more on this particular inflation measurement aspect.

Progress Report on Owner-Occupied Housing Statistical Programme Committee, Luxembourg 15 February 2007

Owner-Occupied housing for the HICP OECD-IMF Workshop, Paris 6-7 November 2006

Owner-Occupied Housing in the HICP - Progress report Statistical Programme Committee, Luxembourg, 27 May 2004

Residential Property Price Indices Handbook

Handbook on Residential Property Prices Indices (RPPIs)

For most citizens, buying a residential property (dwelling) is the most important transaction during their lifetime.

Residential properties represent the most significant component of households’ expenses and, at the same time, their most valuable assets. RPPIs) are index numbers measuring the rate at which the prices of residential properties are changing over time. RPPIs are key statistics not only for citizens and households across the world, but also for economic and monetary policy makers. Among their professional uses, they serve, for example, to monitor macroeconomic imbalances and risk exposure of the financial sector.

This Handbook provides, for the first time, comprehensive guidelines for the compilation of RPPIs and explains in depth the methods and best practices used to calculate an RPPI. It also examines the underlying economic and statistical concepts and defines the principles guiding the methodological and practical choices for the compilation of the indices. The Handbook primarily addresses official statisticians in charge of producing residential property price indices; at the same time, it addresses the overall requirement on RPPIs by providing a harmonised methodological and practical framework to all parties interested in the compilation of such indices.

The RPPIs Handbook has been written by leading academics in index number theory and by recognised experts in RPPIs compilation. Its development has been co-ordinated by Eurostat, the statistical office of the EU, with the collaboration of the International Labour Organization (ILO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the World Bank.

Table of contents

HICP at constant tax rates

The Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices at constant tax rates (HICP-CT) is a series of inflation indices that starts for most countries in 2002. The data provision is compulsory for every Member State since January 2013, following the adoption of the Regulation (EC) No 119/2013. The HICP-CT follows the same computation principles as the HICP, but is based on prices at constant tax rates. These new series show the potential impact of changes in indirect taxes (e.g. VAT and excise duties) on the overall inflation.

The HICP-CT is an important tool for analysing the causes of inflation and for forecasting the impact of future tax changes on inflation. It has to be emphasised that they do not provide an exact measure of the impact, rather an indication for the upper limit of the impact. In effect, the difference between HICP and HICP-CT growth rates points to the theoretical impact of tax changes on overall HICP inflation, assuming an instantaneous pass-through of tax rate changes on the price paid by the consumer.

Also HICP-CT have to follow common standards which are summarised in the reference methodology:

* [Reference methodology – version 1.0 April 2011][84]

More detailed information can be found in:

* [News Release 146/2009][85]  
* [HICP-CT Manual][86]  
* [Overview of VAT rates and changes in these rates][87]  
* [Overview of taxes - other than VAT - and excise duties][88]

HICP - administered prices

The HICP - administered prices (HICP-AP) are a series of inflation indices, which were first released by Eurostat in February 2010. These new indices provide a summary of the development of administered prices (those prices directly set or influenced to a significant extent by the government), and their complement, prices which are not administered.

The HICP-AP is an important tool for analysing the causes of inflation and for forecasting inflation. It should be emphasised that these indices do not provide an exact measure of the development of administered and non-administered prices. In effect, the basic information from which these aggregate measures are derived does not fully distinguish administered and non-administered prices. HICP items which cover more than 50% administered prices are classified as administered.

For most EU Member States, the classification of individual COICOP/HICP items as administered prices is supplied by the National Statistical Institutes; for some other EU Member States, this classification was provided by the National Central Bank. For all countries, Eurostat together with the Directorate General for Economic and Financial Affairs and the European Central Bank verified the final classification. The HICP-AP series will be labelled as 'experimental' for at least one year after their first release and until the successful completion of a further verification round in early 2011.

The following six aggregates for all EU Member States, the euro area and the EU are published by Eurostat:

* HICP of administered prices, of fully administered prices and of mainly administered prices.  
* HICP all-items excluding administered prices, excluding fully administered prices and excluding mainly administered prices.

These data, indices as well as rates of change, will from now on be regularly made available in Eurostat's online database.

For some Member States, HICP-AP figures may significantly differ from existing similar national measures, e.g. CPI-APs. The main reason is differences in coverage.

More detailed information can be found in:

* [News Release 28/2010][89]  
* [Definitions and explanations][90]  
* [HICP-AP National classification 2001-2013][91]  

Prices data for Market Monitoring

Consumer Prices Research
[Consumer prices research][92] - November 2013  

In 2013, Eurostat and National Statistical Institutes (NSIs) carried out a fifth pilot project for the provision of data on price levels for a number of consumer goods and services, with reference to 2012. This work is to be seen as an extension to existing work on price statistics that includes the Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP) and Purchasing Power Parities ([PPP][93]). Both HICPs and PPPs are compiled as index numbers. Those two statistics show, respectively, aggregate data on the development of price levels over time and comparisons of price levels across countries. This project aims to present indicative price levels for specific groups of products as an additional set of price data. It is by no means a replacement for the measurement of inflation (HICP) or international price level comparisons (PPPs).

This report provides results from the fifth pilot and explains the strengths and limitations of those results. It should be stressed that the results provided in this report are to be interpreted as indicative price levels for those product groups that consumers usually or typically buy nationally; they do not necessarily represent official national average prices.

Eurostat and NSIs are currently preparing further research studies for 2013-2014 on the use of HICP, PPP and other alternative data sources to develop multi-purpose consumer price statistics. This shall lead to decisions for the medium-term on how to make available detailed data on price indices and indicative price levels.

Previous publications:
* [Consumer prices research][94] - December 2012  
* [Consumer prices research][95] - October 2011  
* [Consumer prices research][96] - February 2009  
* [Consumer prices research][97] - October 2010  
European Food Prices Monitoring Tool
On 28 October  2009 the  European  Commission  published  a Communication on  'A better functioning food supply chain in Europe'.

Among other challenges identified in this communication, the Commission seeks to 'increase transparency along the food supply chain to encourage competition and improve its resilience to price volatility'. One step towards increased transparency is the creation of a European food prices monitoring tool.

In parallel to the Commission Communication, Eurostat is publishing a first version of such a tool, putting together data collected by Eurostat and National Statistical Offices. The primary aim of this tool is to bring together the available data on price developments in the different steps of the supply chain, comparing price developments for the relevant agricultural commodities, for the relevant food industries as well as for the chosen consumer goods.

Some new and additional data has been collected and included in the monitoring tool a set of 8 more detailed HICP indices provided by the NSIs for this purpose.

More information about this new monitoring tool can be found [here][98].

The Food supply chain (FSC) tool itself is directly accessible through the links below:
* FSC - [Price indices][99] 
* FSC - [Annual rates of price change][100] 

Access to food price data via the Eurostat database can be found [here][101].

Compliance monitoring

Eurostat must ensure that the statistical practices used to compile national HICPs are in compliance with HICP methodological requirements, and that good practices in the field of consumer price indices are being followed. In this section Eurostat's compliance monitoring strategy is summarised and Information Notes concerning the compliance of individual national HICPs will be made available as they are finalised.

Compliance Monitoring Strategy

Information Notes

2013
* Greece
* Sweden
* Latvia
2012
* The Netherlands
* Finland
* Luxembourg
2010
* Estonia
* Ireland
* Germany
* Denmark
* Spain
* Portugal
* Belgium
2009
* Hungary
* Czech Republic
* Germany
* United Kingdom
* France
2008
* Slovakia
* Poland
2007
* Malta
* Romania
* Latvia
* Italy
* Bulgaria
2006
* Cyprus
* Malta
* Estonia
* Lithuania
* Slovenia

Legislation

Legislation relating to Harmonized Indices of Consumer Prices includes:

Regulations (by shortname in chronological order):
* [Framework regulation][133] (2494/1995)  
* [Initial implementing measures][134] (1749/1996)  
* [Sub-indices][135] (2214/1996)  
* [Weights][136] (2454/1997)  
* [Coverage of goods and services][137] (1687/1998)  
* [Geographic and population coverage][138] (1688/1998)  
* [Treatment of tariffs][139] (2646/1998)  
* [Treatment of insurance][140] (1617/1999)  
* [Revised sub-indices][141] (1749/1999)  
* [Treatment of products in the health, education and social protection sectors][142] (2166/1999)  
* [Timing of entering purchaser prices][143] (2601/2000)  
* [Treatment of price reductions][144] (2602/2000)  
* [Treatment of service charges][145] (1920/2001 and [corrigenda][146])  
* [Minimum standards for revisions][147] (1921/2001 and [corrigenda][148])  
* [Common index reference period][149] (1708/2005)  
* [Temporal coverage of price collection][150] (701/2006)  
* [Sampling][151] (1334/2007)  
* [Seasonal products][152] (330/2009)  
* [Weights][153] (1114/2010)  
* [Owner-occupied housing][154] 93/2013    
* [HICP at constant taxes (HICP-CT)][155] 119/2013   

Recommendation:

* [Recommendation on the treatment of issues relating to health care reform][156] (881/2005) 
Reports:
* [Report from the Commission to the Council on harmonisation of Consumer Price Indices in the European Union][157] (COM(1998) 104 final - 27.2.1998)  
* [Report from the Commission to the Council on harmonisation of Consumer Price Indices in the European Union][158] (COM(2000) 742 final - 21.11.2000)  

DATA_DESCR Harmonised indices of consumer prices (HICPs) give comparable measures of inflation for the countries and country groups for which they are produced. They are economic indicators that measure the change over time of the prices of consumer goods and services acquired by households. In other words, they are a set of consumer price indices (CPIs) calculated according to a harmonised approach and a single set of definitions. In particular, HICPs provide the official measure of consumer price inflation in the euro area for the purposes of monetary policy and the assessment of inflation convergence as required under the Maastricht criteria for accession to the euro. HICPs are available for all EU Member States, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. In addition to the individual country series there are three key country-group aggregate indices: the Monetary Union Index of Consumer Prices (MUICP or EA) covering the euro area countries, the European index of consumer prices (EICP or EU) including all Member States, and the European Economic Area index of consumer prices (EEAICP), which in addition to the EU also covers Iceland and Norway. The official country-group aggregates reflect the evolution of Economic and monetary union, the EU and the EEA. HICPs for new Member States are chained into the aggregate indices at the time of accession. In addition to these official aggregates, Eurostat computes also country aggregates with stable composition over time. For example, the aggregate 'EU-28' shows price indices covering all current 28 Member States since 1997. There are also interim HICPs for candidate countries: Croatia and Turkey. It is expected that once those countries accede to the EU their HICPs will be fully comparable with those of the existing Member States. For USA only all-items proxy-HICP is available. The national HICPs are produced by National Statistical Institutes, while the country-group aggregates are produced by Eurostat. The data that is released monthly on Eurostat's free dissemination database include price indices themselves as well as their rates of change as monthly, annual and 12-month moving average changes. In addition to the headline figure, the all-items HICP, around one hundred sub-indices for different goods and services and over thirty special aggregates are made available. The relative weights for the indices, including the special aggregates, are published for the individual countries and for the country groups. An early estimate of the overall inflation rate for the euro area, as well as estimates for its four main components, are published in a news release monthly, usually on the last working day of the reference month. They are called HICP flash estimates. 

CLASS_SYSTEM The HICPs are classified according to the four-digit categories and sub-categories of the COICOP/HICP (Classification of individual consumption by purpose adapted to the needs of HICPs). There are also a set of special aggregates, which combine indices in a different way than the standard COICOP. Main COICOP/HICP headings:00. All-items (global index)01. Food and non-alcoholic beverages02. Alcoholic beverages and tobacco03. Clothing and footwear04. Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels05. Furnishings, Household equipment and routine maintenance of the house06. Health07. Transport08. Communication09. Recreation and culture10. Education11. Restaurants and Hotels12. Miscellaneous goods and services Examples of special aggregates:- Energy - Food, alcohol and tobacco - All items excluding energy - All items excluding energy, food, alcohol and tobacco

STAT_CONC_DEF The published data is as follows: Monthly data:- Indices (HICP 2005=100, HICP: 1996=100, HICP at constant taxes 2005=100)- Annual rates of change- Monthly rates of change- 12-month average rate of change Annual data:- Average index and rate of change- Country weights- Item weights

STAT_UNIT Each published index or rate of change refers to the 'final monetary consumption expenditure' of the whole household sector of the corresponding geographical entity.

STAT_POP The target statistical universe is the 'household final monetary consumption expenditure' (HFMCE) within the economic territories of the countries compiling the HICP. The household sector to which the definition refers includes all individuals or groups of individuals irrespective of, in particular, the type of area in which they live, their position in the income distribution and their nationality or residence status. These definitions follow the national account concepts in the European System of Accounts (ESA 1995). HICPs comprise all products and services purchased in monetary transactions by households within the territory of a country; those by both resident and non-resident households (i.e. 'domestic concept').

REF_AREA European Union (EU), euro area (European Monetary Union), European Economic Area (EEA), EU Member States, Iceland, Norway Switzerland, Turkey and the USA.

BASE_PER HICPs are produced and published using a common index reference period (2005=100). A set of monthly HICP series using 1996 as reference year (1996=100) is also available.

UNIT_MEASURE Following units are used: Index (unitless, however, the HICP can be thought of as the amount the average consumer would have to spend in a given year to buy the same basic goods and services that one would have to pay 100 monetary units for in the base period.) Percentage change on the same period of the previous year (rates) Percentage change on the previous month (rates) Percentage share of the total (weights).

    • Unit of measure
      • 0 Index, 2015=100
      • 1 Index, 2005=100
      • 2 Index, 1996=100
    • Classification of individual consumption by purpose (COICOP)
      • 00 All-items HICP
      • 01 Food and non-alcoholic beverages
      • 02 Food
      • 03 Bread and cereals
      • 04 Rice
      • 05 Flours and other cereals
      • 06 Bread
      • 07 Other bakery products
      • 08 Pizza and quiche
      • 09 Pasta products and couscous
      • 0a Breakfast cereals
      • 0b Other cereal products
      • 0c Meat
      • 0d Beef and veal
      • 0e Pork
      • 0f Lamb and goat
      • 0g Poultry
      • 0h Other meats
      • 0i Edible offal
      • 0j Dried, salted or smoked meat
      • 0k Other meat preparations
      • 0l Fish and seafood
      • 0m Fresh or chilled fish
      • 0n Frozen fish
      • 0o Fresh or chilled seafood
      • 0p Frozen seafood
      • 0q Dried, smoked or salted fish and seafood
      • 0r Other preserved or processed fish and seafood and fish and seafood preparations
      • 0s Milk, cheese and eggs
      • 0t Fresh whole milk
      • 0u Fresh low fat milk
      • 0v Preserved milk
      • 0w Yoghurt
      • 0x Cheese and curd
      • 0y Other milk products
      • 0z Eggs
      • 10 Oils and fats
      • 11 Butter
      • 12 Margarine and other vegetable fats
      • 13 Olive oil
      • 14 Other edible oils
      • 15 Other edible animal fats
      • 16 Fruit
      • 17 Fresh or chilled fruit
      • 18 Frozen fruit
      • 19 Dried fruit and nuts
      • 1a Preserved fruit and fruit-based products
      • 1b Vegetables
      • 1c Fresh or chilled vegetables other than potatoes and other tubers
      • 1d Frozen vegetables other than potatoes and other tubers
      • 1e Dried vegetables, other preserved or processed vegetables
      • 1f Potatoes
      • 1g Crisps
      • 1h Other tubers and products of tuber vegetables
      • 1i Sugar, jam, honey, chocolate and confectionery
      • 1j Sugar
      • 1k Jams, marmalades and honey
      • 1l Chocolate
      • 1m Confectionery products
      • 1n Edible ices and ice cream
      • 1o Artificial sugar substitutes
      • 1p Food products n.e.c.
      • 1q Sauces, condiments
      • 1r Salt, spices and culinary herbs
      • 1s Baby food
      • 1t Ready-made meals
      • 1u Other food products n.e.c.
      • 1v Non-alcoholic beverages
      • 1w Coffee, tea and cocoa
      • 1x Coffee
      • 1y Tea
      • 1z Cocoa and powdered chocolate
      • 20 Mineral waters, soft drinks, fruit and vegetable juices
      • 21 Mineral or spring waters
      • 22 Soft drinks
      • 23 Fruit and vegetables juices
      • 24 Alcoholic beverages, tobacco and narcotics
      • 25 Alcoholic beverages
      • 26 Spirits
      • 27 Spirits and liqueurs
      • 28 Alcoholic soft drinks
      • 29 Wine
      • 2a Wine from grapes
      • 2b Wine from other fruits
      • 2c Fortified wines
      • 2d Wine-based drinks
      • 2e Beer
      • 2f Lager beer
      • 2g Other alcoholic beer
      • 2h Low and non-alcoholic beer
      • 2i Beer-based drinks
      • 2j Tobacco
      • 2k Cigarettes
      • 2l Cigars
      • 2m Other tobacco products
      • 2n Clothing and footwear
      • 2o Clothing
      • 2p Clothing materials
      • 2q Garments
      • 2r Garments for men
      • 2s Garments for women
      • 2t Garments for infants (0 to 2 years) and children (3 to 13 years)
      • 2u Other articles of clothing and clothing accessories
      • 2v Other articles of clothing
      • 2w Clothing accessories
      • 2x Cleaning, repair and hire of clothing
      • 2y Cleaning of clothing
      • 2z Repair and hire of clothing
      • 30 Footwear
      • 31 Shoes and other footwear
      • 32 Footwear for men
      • 33 Footwear for women
      • 34 Footwear for infants and children
      • 35 Repair and hire of footwear
      • 36 Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels
      • 37 Actual rentals for housing
      • 38 Actual rentals paid by tenants
      • 39 Other actual rentals
      • 3a Actual rentals paid by tenants for secondary residences
      • 3b Garage rentals and other rentals paid by tenants
      • 3c Maintenance and repair of the dwelling
      • 3d Materials for the maintenance and repair of the dwelling
      • 3e Services for the maintenance and repair of the dwelling
      • 3f Services of plumbers
      • 3g Services of electricians
      • 3h Maintenance services for heating systems
      • 3i Services of painters
      • 3j Services of carpenters
      • 3k Other services for maintenance and repair of the dwelling
      • 3l Water supply and miscellaneous services relating to the dwelling
      • 3m Water supply
      • 3n Refuse collection
      • 3o Sewerage collection
      • 3p Other services relating to the dwelling n.e.c.
      • 3q Maintenance charges in multi-occupied buildings
      • 3r Security services
      • 3s Other services related to dwelling
      • 3t Electricity, gas and other fuels
      • 3u Electricity
      • 3v Gas
      • 3w Natural gas and town gas
      • 3x Liquefied hydrocarbons (butane, propane, etc.)
      • 3y Liquid fuels
      • 3z Solid fuels
      • 40 Coal
      • 41 Other solid fuels
      • 42 Heat energy
      • 43 Furnishings, household equipment and routine household maintenance
      • 44 Furniture and furnishings, carpets and other floor coverings
      • 45 Furniture and furnishings
      • 46 Household furniture
      • 47 Garden furniture
      • 48 Lighting equipment
      • 49 Other furniture and furnishings
      • 4a Carpets and other floor coverings
      • 4b Carpet and rugs
      • 4c Other floor coverings
      • 4d Services of laying of fitted carpets and floor coverings
      • 4e Repair of furniture, furnishings and floor coverings
      • 4f Household textiles
      • 4g Furnishings fabrics and curtains
      • 4h Bed linen
      • 4i Table linen and bathroom linen
      • 4j Repair of household textiles
      • 4k Other household textiles
      • 4l Household appliances
      • 4m Major household appliances whether electric or not and small electric household appliances
      • 4n Major household appliances whether electric or not
      • 4o Refrigerators, freezers and fridge-freezers
      • 4p Clothes washing machines, clothes drying machines and dish washing machines
      • 4q Cookers
      • 4r Heaters, air conditioners
      • 4s Cleaning equipment
      • 4t Other major household appliances
      • 4u Small electric household appliances
      • 4v Food processing appliances
      • 4w Coffee machines, tea-makers and similar appliances
      • 4x Irons
      • 4y Toasters and grills
      • 4z Other small electric household appliances
      • 50 Repair of household appliances
      • 51 Glassware, tableware and household utensils
      • 52 Glassware, crystal-ware, ceramic ware and chinaware
      • 53 Cutlery, flatware and silverware
      • 54 Non-electric kitchen utensils and articles
      • 55 Repair of glassware, tableware and household utensils
      • 56 Tools and equipment for house and garden
      • 57 Major tools and equipment
      • 58 Motorized major tools and equipment
      • 59 Repair, leasing and rental of major tools and equipment
      • 5a Small tools and miscellaneous accessories
      • 5b Non-motorised small tools
      • 5c Miscellaneous small tool accessories
      • 5d Repair of non-motorised small tools and miscellaneous accessories
      • 5e Goods and services for routine household maintenance
      • 5f Non-durable household goods
      • 5g Cleaning and maintenance products
      • 5h Other non-durable small household articles
      • 5i Domestic services and household services
      • 5j Domestic services by paid staff
      • 5k Cleaning services
      • 5l Hire of furniture and furnishings
      • 5m Other domestic services and household services
      • 5n Health
      • 5o Medical products, appliances and equipment
      • 5p Pharmaceutical products
      • 5q Other medical products, therapeutic appliances and equipment
      • 5r Other medical products
      • 5s Pregnancy tests and mechanical contraceptive devices
      • 5t Other medical products n.e.c.
      • 5u Therapeutic appliances and equipment
      • 5v Corrective eye-glasses and contact lenses
      • 5w Hearing aids
      • 5x Repair of therapeutic appliances and equipment
      • 5y Other therapeutic appliances and equipment
      • 5z Out-patient services
      • 60 Medical services and paramedical services
      • 61 Medical services
      • 62 General practice
      • 63 Specialist practice
      • 64 Dental services
      • 65 Paramedical services
      • 66 Services of medical analysis laboratories and X-ray centres
      • 67 Thermal-baths, corrective-gymnastic therapy, ambulance and hire of therapeutic equipment
      • 68 Other paramedical services
      • 69 Hospital services
      • 6a Transport
      • 6b Purchase of vehicles
      • 6c Motor cars
      • 6d New motor cars
      • 6e Second-hand motor cars
      • 6f Motor cycles, bicycles and animal drawn vehicles
      • 6g Motor cycles
      • 6h Bicycles
      • 6i Animal drawn vehicles
      • 6j Operation of personal transport equipment
      • 6k Spare parts and accessories for personal transport equipment
      • 6l Tyres
      • 6m Spare parts for personal transport equipment
      • 6n Accessories for personal transport equipment
      • 6o Fuels and lubricants for personal transport equipment
      • 6p Diesel
      • 6q Petrol
      • 6r Other fuels for personal transport equipment
      • 6s Lubricants
      • 6t Maintenance and repair of personal transport equipment
      • 6u Other services in respect of personal transport equipment
      • 6v Hire of garages, parking spaces and personal transport equipment
      • 6w Toll facilities and parking meters
      • 6x Driving lessons, tests, licences and road worthiness tests
      • 6y Transport services
      • 6z Passenger transport by railway
      • 70 Passenger transport by train
      • 71 Passenger transport by underground and tram
      • 72 Passenger transport by road
      • 73 Passenger transport by bus and coach
      • 74 Passenger transport by taxi and hired car with driver
      • 75 Passenger transport by air
      • 76 Domestic flights
      • 77 International flights
      • 78 Passenger transport by sea and inland waterway
      • 79 Passenger transport by sea
      • 7a Passenger transport by inland waterway
      • 7b Combined passenger transport
      • 7c Other purchased transport services
      • 7d Funicular, cable-car and chair-lift transport
      • 7e Removal and storage services
      • 7f Other purchased transport services n.e.c.
      • 7g Communications
      • 7h Postal services
      • 7i Letter handling services
      • 7j Other postal services
      • 7k Telephone and telefax equipment and services
      • 7l Telephone and telefax equipment
      • 7m Fixed telephone equipment
      • 7n Mobile telephone equipment
      • 7o Other equipment of telephone and telefax equipment
      • 7p Repair of telephone or telefax equipment
      • 7q Telephone and telefax services
      • 7r Wired telephone services
      • 7s Wireless telephone services
      • 7t Internet access provision services
      • 7u Bundled telecommunication services
      • 7v Other information transmission services
      • 7w Recreation and culture
      • 7x Audio-visual, photographic and information processing equipment
      • 7y Equipment for the reception, recording and reproduction of sound and picture
      • 7z Equipment for the reception, recording and reproduction of sound
      • 80 Equipment for the reception, recording and reproduction of sound and vision
      • 81 Portable sound and vision devices
      • 82 Other equipment for the reception, recording and reproduction of sound and picture
      • 83 Photographic and cinematographic equipment and optical instruments
      • 84 Cameras
      • 85 Accessories for photographic and cinematographic equipment
      • 86 Optical instruments
      • 87 Information processing equipment
      • 88 Personal computers
      • 89 Accessories for information processing equipment
      • 8a Software
      • 8b Calculators and other information processing equipment
      • 8c Recording media
      • 8d Pre-recorded recording media
      • 8e Unrecorded recording media
      • 8f Other recording media
      • 8g Repair of audio-visual, photographic and information processing equipment
      • 8h Other major durables for recreation and culture
      • 8i Major durables for indoor and outdoor recreation including musical instruments
      • 8j Major durables for outdoor recreation
      • 8k Camper vans, caravans and trailers
      • 8l Aeroplanes, microlight aircraft, gliders, hang-gliders and hot-air balloons
      • 8m Boats, outboard motors and fitting out of boats
      • 8n Horses, ponies and accessories
      • 8o Major items for games and sport
      • 8p Musical instruments and major durables for indoor recreation
      • 8q Musical instruments
      • 8r Major durables for indoor recreation
      • 8s Maintenance and repair of other major durables for recreation and culture
      • 8t Other recreational items and equipment, gardens and pets
      • 8u Games, toys and hobbies
      • 8v Games and hobbies
      • 8w Toys and celebration articles
      • 8x Equipment for sport, camping and open-air recreation
      • 8y Equipment for sport
      • 8z Equipment for camping and open-air recreation
      • 90 Repair of equipment for sport, camping and open-air recreation
      • 91 Gardens, plants and flowers
      • 92 Garden products
      • 93 Plants and flowers
      • 94 Pets and related products; veterinary and other services for pets
      • 95 Pets and related products
      • 96 Purchase of pets
      • 97 Products for pets
      • 98 Veterinary and other services for pets
      • 99 Recreational and cultural services
      • 9a Recreational and sporting services
      • 9b Recreational and sporting services - Attendance
      • 9c Recreational and sporting services - Participation
      • 9d Cultural services
      • 9e Cinemas, theatres, concerts
      • 9f Museums, libraries, zoological gardens
      • 9g Television and radio licence fees, subscriptions
      • 9h Hire of equipment and accessories for culture
      • 9i Photographic services
      • 9j Other cultural services
      • 9k Newspapers, books and stationery
      • 9l Books
      • 9m Fiction books
      • 9n Educational text books
      • 9o Other non-fiction books
      • 9p Binding services and E-book downloads
      • 9q Newspapers and periodicals
      • 9r Newspapers
      • 9s Magazines and periodicals
      • 9t Miscellaneous printed matter; stationery and drawing materials
      • 9u Miscellaneous printed matter
      • 9v Stationery and drawing materials
      • 9w Paper products
      • 9x Other stationery and drawing materials
      • 9y Package holidays
      • 9z Package domestic holidays
      • a0 Package international holidays
      • a1 Education
      • a2 Pre-primary and primary education
      • a3 Pre-primary education
      • a4 Primary education
      • a5 Secondary education
      • a6 Post-secondary non-tertiary education
      • a7 Tertiary education
      • a8 Education not definable by level
      • a9 Restaurants and hotels
      • aa Catering services
      • ab Restaurants, cafés and the like
      • ac Restaurants, cafés and dancing establishments
      • ad Fast food and take away food services
      • ae Canteens
      • af Accommodation services
      • ag Hotels, motels, inns and similar accommodation services
      • ah Holiday centres, camping sites, youth hostels and similar accommodation services
      • ai Accommodation services of other establishments
      • aj Miscellaneous goods and services
      • ak Personal care
      • al Hairdressing salons and personal grooming establishments
      • am Hairdressing for men and children
      • an Hairdressing for women
      • ao Personal grooming treatments
      • ap Electrical appliances for personal care; other appliances, articles and products for personal care
      • aq Electrical appliances for personal care
      • ar Electric appliances for personal care
      • as Repair of electric appliances for personal care
      • at Other appliances, articles and products for personal care
      • au Non-electrical appliances
      • av Articles for personal hygiene and wellness, esoteric products and beauty products
      • aw Personal effects n.e.c.
      • ax Jewellery, clocks and watches
      • ay Jewellery
      • az Clocks and watches
      • b0 Repair of jewellery, clocks and watches
      • b1 Other personal effects
      • b2 Travel goods
      • b3 Articles for babies
      • b4 Repair of other personal effects
      • b5 Other personal effects n.e.c.
      • b6 Social protection
      • b7 Child care services
      • b8 Retirement homes for elderly persons and residences for disabled persons
      • b9 Services to maintain people in their private homes
      • ba Counselling
      • bb Insurance
      • bc Insurance connected with the dwelling
      • bd Insurance connected with health
      • be Private insurance connected with health
      • bf Insurance connected with transport
      • bg Motor vehicle insurance
      • bh Travel insurance
      • bi Other insurance
      • bj Financial services n.e.c.
      • bk Charges by banks and post offices
      • bl Fees and service charges of brokers, investment counsellors
      • bm Other services n.e.c.
      • bn Administrative fees
      • bo Legal services and accountancy
      • bp Funeral services
      • bq Other fees and services
      • br Goods (overall index excluding services)
      • bs Food including alcohol and tobacco
      • bt Processed food including alcohol and tobacco
      • bu Processed food excluding alcohol and tobacco
      • bv Unprocessed food
      • bw Seasonal food
      • bx Industrial goods
      • by Non-energy industrial goods
      • bz Non-energy industrial goods, durables only
      • c0 Non-energy industrial goods, semi-durables only
      • c1 Non-energy industrial goods, non-durables only
      • c2 Energy
      • c3 Electricity, gas, solid fuels and heat energy
      • c4 Liquid fuels and fuels and lubricants for personal transport equipment
      • c5 Services (overall index excluding goods)
      • c6 Services related to communication
      • c7 Services related to housing
      • c8 Services - miscellaneous
      • c9 Services related to recreation, including repairs and personal care
      • ca Services related to recreation and personal care, excluding package holidays and accommodation
      • cb Services related to package holidays and accommodation
      • cc Services related to transport
      • cd Energy and unprocessed food
      • ce Energy and seasonal food
      • cf Education, health and social protection
      • cg Frequent out-of-pocket purchases
      • ch Overall index excluding seasonal food
      • ci Overall index excluding alcohol and tobacco
      • cj Overall index excluding tobacco
      • ck Overall index excluding energy
      • cl Overall index excluding energy, food, alcohol and tobacco
      • cm Overall index excluding energy and unprocessed food
      • cn Overall index excluding energy and seasonal food
      • co Overall index excluding liquid fuels and lubricants for personal transport equipment
      • cp Overall index excluding housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels
      • cq Overall index excluding education, health and social protection
      • cr Overall index excluding frequent out-of-pocket purchases
      • cs Administered prices
      • ct Administered prices, energy
      • cu Administered prices, non-energy
      • cv Fully administered prices
      • cw Mainly administered prices
      • cx Overall index excluding administered prices
      • cy Overall index excluding fully administered prices
      • cz Overall index excluding mainly administered prices
    • Geopolitical entity (reporting)
      • 00 European Union (EU6-1958, EU9-1973, EU10-1981, EU12-1986, EU15-1995, EU25-2004, EU27-2007, EU28-2013)
      • 01 European Union - 28 countries
      • 02 European Union - 27 countries (from 2019)
      • 03 Euro area (EA11-2000, EA12-2006, EA13-2007, EA15-2008, EA16-2010, EA17-2013, EA18-2014, EA19)
      • 04 Euro area (19 countries)
      • 05 Euro area (18 countries)
      • 06 Belgium
      • 07 Bulgaria
      • 08 Czechia
      • 09 Denmark
      • 0a Germany (until 1990 former territory of the FRG)
      • 0b Estonia
      • 0c Ireland
      • 0d Greece
      • 0e Spain
      • 0f France
      • 0g Croatia
      • 0h Italy
      • 0i Cyprus
      • 0j Latvia
      • 0k Lithuania
      • 0l Luxembourg
      • 0m Hungary
      • 0n Malta
      • 0o Netherlands
      • 0p Austria
      • 0q Poland
      • 0r Portugal
      • 0s Romania
      • 0t Slovenia
      • 0u Slovakia
      • 0v Finland
      • 0w Sweden
      • 0x United Kingdom
      • 0y European Economic Area (EEA18-1995, EEA28-2004, EEA30-2007, EEA31-2013, EEA30-2019)
      • 0z Iceland
      • 10 Norway
      • 11 Switzerland
      • 12 North Macedonia
      • 13 Serbia
      • 14 Turkey
      • 15 United States