methods, notes and classification Patent cooperation treaty (PCT) applications designated to the EPO by priority year by international patent classification (IPC) sections and classes methods, notes and classification

Science, Technology and Innovation

Science, technology and innovation are important drivers for the Europe 2020 growth strategy. Data in these fields collected by Eurostat serves both policymakers and scientists.

EU Policy context

Science, technology and innovation statistics have been acknowledged in 2010 by the Commission as to be closely linked to the policy activities carried out by the European Union. This places Innovation indicators as a key element in monitoring the objectives of the Innovation Union initiative and European Research Area (ERA) under the different priorities of the Europe 2020 Strategy.

Europe 2020 Strategy sets out a vision of Europe's social market economy for the 21st century and notably retained the 3% R&D intensity goal as one of the five headline targets to be achieved by the EU by 2020.

On 17 July 2012, the Commission adopted its Communication on "A Reinforced European Research Area (ERA) Partnership for Excellence and Growth". ERA is a unified research area open to the world based on the Internal market, in which researchers, scientific knowledge and technology circulate freely.

The measures in the Communication will have to be implemented by EU Member States, the Commission and Research Organisations to ensure the completion of ERA by 2014 as called for by the European Council.

Data

A significant number of tables are published in Eurostat's dissemination database Eurobase under the heading of Science and Technology. The tables are divided into six domains and each domain comprises further sub-domains. The six domains are:

Research and development (R&D)

Domain comprises national statistics on R&D expenditure, R&D personnel and government budget appropriations or outlays on R&D (GBAORD). Data are collected in several occasions in a year and they consist of several breakdowns such as institutional R&D performing and funding sectors, types of costs and types of R&D, fields of science and economic activities. Derived indicator 'Gross domestic expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP' is one of the eight headline indicators of Europe 2020 strategy.

Community Innovation Survey (CIS)

This biennial national data collection shows information on enterprises' product and process innovations as well as organizational and marketing innovations. The core statistics and related indicators cover innovation activities, cooperation, development, expenditures and turnover. Each survey wave may additionally include other indicators like innovation objectives or information sources and analyze further particular aspects or drivers of enterprise innovation (eco-innovation in 2008, skills and creativity in 2010).

High-tech

Statistics on High-tech are derived from different sources: EU-LFS, Structural Business Statistics, Exports/Imports, Structure or Earnings Statistics, CIS, R&D. Statistics on High-tech domain offer information on High-tech sectors and products which are defined based on the level of technological intensity. The list of indicators is covering employment, economic statistics in high-tech sectors and knowledge intensive services, as well as information on high-tech trade.

Patents

This domain features statistics derived from the European Patent Office (EPO) raw database PATSTAT, on patents from EPO, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), triadic patent families and Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) applications. Patent statistics breakdowns include the fields of the International Patent Classification (IPC); institutional sector, economic activities, foreign ownership and also High Tech patents and aggregations by several technology areas (i.e. ICT, biotechnology, nanotechnology, "green" energy technologies).

Human resources in science and technology (HRST)

This domain includes statistics derived from EU - Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) and Eurostat/Unesco/OECD data collection on education. They describe the current stock of HRST and give information on the current and future supply of highly skilled people from universities and other education institutions into the HRST stocks. The list of indicators refers to Human Resources in Science and Technology with breakdowns: by gender, age, nationality, country of birth, sector of economic activity, occupation, employment status. Job-to-job mobility and information regarding participation and graduation from tertiary education by gender and field of study are also covered.

Statistics on Careers of Doctorate Holders (CDH)

Statistics on Careers of Doctorate Holders (CDH) have been designed to produce indicators on the careers and mobility of research qualification holders, measuring their demographic, employment, career and salary characteristics, as well as their international and sectoral mobility. Data is available from voluntary survey for reference years 2006 and 2009.

Methodology

Detailed information on surveys and indicators is available through the metadata files accompanying the Eurobase tables. The method of collection varies from one domain to another.

Research and development (R&D)

Data from national R&D surveys based on the Frascati Manual, OECD, 2002.

Community innovation survey (CIS)

Data from national CIS surveys based on the Oslo Manual, OECD/European Commission, 2005.

High-tech industry and knowledge-intensive services

Data from various sources collected in different ways; statistics compiled at Eurostat.

Patents

Data from the patent database PATSTAT hosted by European Patent Office (EPO). PATSTAT gathers data on applications to the EPO and around 70 national patent offices across the world (mainly USPTO and JPO) - statistics compiled at Eurostat.

Human resources in science and technology (HRST)

Data from the EU Labour Force Survey (LFS) and the Data Collection on Education Systems (UOE) according to the guidelines in the Canberra Manual, OECD, 1995 - statistics compiled at Eurostat.

Careers of doctorate holders

Data from the two first rounds (2006 and 2009) of the international survey on the Careers of Doctorate Holders (CDH), jointly carried out by Eurostat, the OECD and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics.

Legislation

    • International patent classification (IPC)
      • 00 International patent classification (IPC) - total
      • 01 Section A - Human necessities
      • 02 Agriculture; forestry; animal husbandry; hunting; trapping; fishing
      • 03 Baking; equipment for making or processing doughs; doughs for baking
      • 04 Butchering; meat treatment; processing poultry or fish
      • 05 Foods or foodstuffs; their treatment, not covered by other classes
      • 06 Tobacco; cigars; cigarettes; smokers' requisites
      • 07 Wearing apparel
      • 08 Headwear
      • 09 Footwear
      • 0a Haberdashery; jewellery
      • 0b Hand or travelling articles
      • 0c Brushware
      • 0d Furniture; domestic articles or appliances; coffee mills; spice mills; suction cleaners in general
      • 0e Medical or veterinary science; hygiene
      • 0f Life-saving; fire-fighting
      • 0g Sports; games; amusements
      • 0h Section B - Performing operations; transporting
      • 0i Physical or chemical processes or apparatus in general
      • 0j Crushing, pulverising, or disintegrating; preparatory treatment of grain for milling
      • 0k Separation of solid materials using liquids or using pneumatic tables or jigs; magnetic or electrostatic separation of solid materials from solid materials or fluids; separation by high-voltage electric fields
      • 0l Centrifugal apparatus or machines for carrying-out physical or chemical processes
      • 0m Spraying or atomising in general; applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces, in general
      • 0n Generating or transmitting mechanical vibrations in general
      • 0o Separating solids from solids; sorting
      • 0p Cleaning
      • 0q Disposal of solid waste; reclamation of contaminated soil
      • 0r Mechanical metal-working without essentially removing material; punching metal
      • 0s Casting; powder metallurgy
      • 0t Machine tools; metal-working not otherwise provided for
      • 0u Grinding; polishing
      • 0v Hand tools; portable power-driven tools; handles for hand implements; workshop equipment; manipulators
      • 0w Hand cutting tools; cutting; severing
      • 0x Working or preserving wood or similar material; nailing or stapling machines in general
      • 0y Working cement, clay, or stone
      • 0z Working of plastics; working of substances in a plastic state in general
      • 10 Presses
      • 11 Making paper articles; working paper
      • 12 Layered products
      • 13 Printing; lining machines; typewriters; stamps
      • 14 Bookbinding; albums; files; special printed matter
      • 15 Writing or drawing implements; bureau accessories
      • 16 Decorative arts
      • 17 Vehicles in general
      • 18 Railways
      • 19 Land vehicles for travelling otherwise than on rails
      • 1a Ships or other waterborne vessels; related equipment
      • 1b Aircraft; aviation; cosmonautics
      • 1c Conveying; packing; storing; handling thin or filamentary material
      • 1d Hoisting; lifting; hauling
      • 1e Opening or closing bottles, jars or similar containers; liquid handling
      • 1f Saddlery; upholstery
      • 1g Micro-structural technology
      • 1h Nanotechnology
      • 1i Section C - Chemistry; metallurgy
      • 1j Inorganic chemistry
      • 1k Treatment of water, waste water, sewage, or sludge
      • 1l Glass; mineral or slag wool
      • 1m Cements; concrete; artificial stone; ceramics; refractories
      • 1n Fertilisers; manufacture thereof
      • 1o Explosives; matches
      • 1p Organic chemistry
      • 1q Organic macromolecular compounds; their preparation or chemical working-up; compositions based thereon
      • 1r Dyes; paints; polishes; natural resins; adhesives; compositions not otherwise provided for; applications of materials not otherwise provided for
      • 1s Petroleum, gas or coke industries; technical gases containing carbon monoxide; fuels; lubricants; peat
      • 1t Animal or vegetable oils, fats, fatty substances or waxes; fatty acids therefrom; detergents; candles
      • 1u Biochemistry; beer; spirits; wine; vinegar; microbiology; enzymology; mutation or genetic engineering
      • 1v Sugar industry
      • 1w Skins; hides; pelts; leather
      • 1x Metallurgy of iron
      • 1y Metallurgy; ferrous or non-ferrous alloys; treatment of alloys or non-ferrous metals
      • 1z Coating metallic material; coating material with metallic material; chemical surface treatment; diffusion treatment of metallic material; coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering, by ion implantation or by chemical vapour deposition, in general; inhibiting corrosion of metallic material or incrustation in general
      • 20 Electrolytic or electrophoretic processes; apparatus therefor
      • 21 Crystal growth
      • 22 Combinatorial technology
      • 23 Section C Other - Chemistry; metallurgy
      • 24 Section D - Textiles; paper
      • 25 Natural or artificial threads or fibres; spinning
      • 26 Yarns; mechanical finishing of yarns or ropes; warping or beaming
      • 27 Weaving
      • 28 Braiding; lace-making; knitting; trimmings; non-woven fabrics
      • 29 Sewing; embroidering; tufting
      • 2a Treatment of textiles or the like; laundering; flexible materials not otherwise provided for
      • 2b Ropes; cables other than electric
      • 2c Paper-making; production of cellulose
      • 2d Section E - Fixed constructions
      • 2e Construction of roads, railways, or bridges
      • 2f Hydraulic engineering; foundations; soil-shifting
      • 2g Water supply; sewerage
      • 2h Building
      • 2i Locks; keys; window or door fittings; safes
      • 2j Doors, windows, shutters, or roller blinds, in general; ladders
      • 2k Earth or rock drilling; mining
      • 2l Section F - Mechanical engineering; lighting; heating; weapons; blasting
      • 2m Machines or engines in general; engine plants in general; steam engines
      • 2n Combustion engines; hot-gas or combustion-product engine plants
      • 2o Machines or engines for liquids; wind, spring, or weight motors; producing mechanical power or a reactive propulsive thrust, not otherwise provided for
      • 2p Positive-displacement machines for liquids; pumps for liquids or elastic fluids
      • 2q Fluid-pressure actuators; hydraulics or pneumatics in general
      • 2r Engineering elements or units; general measures for producing and maintaining effective functioning of machines or installations; thermal insulation in general
      • 2s Storing or distributing gases or liquids
      • 2t Lighting
      • 2u Steam generation
      • 2v Combustion apparatus; combustion processes
      • 2w Heating; ranges; ventilating
      • 2x Refrigeration or cooling; combined heating and refrigeration systems; heat pump systems; manufacture or storage of ice; liquefaction or solidification of gases
      • 2y Drying
      • 2z Furnaces; kilns; ovens; retorts
      • 30 Heat exchange in general
      • 31 Weapons
      • 32 Ammunition; blasting
      • 33 Section G - Physics
      • 34 Measuring; testing
      • 35 Optics
      • 36 Photography; cinematography; analogous techniques using waves other than optical waves; electrography; holography
      • 37 Horology
      • 38 Controlling; regulating
      • 39 Computing; calculating; counting
      • 3a Checking-devices
      • 3b Signalling
      • 3c Educating; cryptography; display; advertising; seals
      • 3d Musical instruments; acoustics
      • 3e Information storage
      • 3f Instrument details
      • 3g Nuclear physics; nuclear engineering
      • 3h Section G Other - Physics
      • 3i Section H - Electricity
      • 3j Basic electric elements
      • 3k Generation, conversion, or distribution of electric power
      • 3l Basic electronic circuitry
      • 3m Electric communication technique
      • 3n Electric techniques not otherwise provided for
      • 3o Unknown
    • Unit of measure
      • 0 Number
    • Geopolitical entity (reporting)
      • 00 European Union - 28 countries
      • 01 Euro area (19 countries)
      • 02 Euro area (18 countries)
      • 03 Belgium
      • 04 Bulgaria
      • 05 Czechia
      • 06 Denmark
      • 07 Germany (until 1990 former territory of the FRG)
      • 08 Estonia
      • 09 Ireland
      • 0a Greece
      • 0b Spain
      • 0c France
      • 0d Croatia
      • 0e Italy
      • 0f Cyprus
      • 0g Latvia
      • 0h Lithuania
      • 0i Luxembourg
      • 0j Hungary
      • 0k Malta
      • 0l Netherlands
      • 0m Austria
      • 0n Poland
      • 0o Portugal
      • 0p Romania
      • 0q Slovenia
      • 0r Slovakia
      • 0s Finland
      • 0t Sweden
      • 0u United Kingdom
      • 0v Iceland
      • 0w Liechtenstein
      • 0x Norway
      • 0y Switzerland
      • 0z North Macedonia
      • 10 Turkey
      • 11 Russia
      • 12 Former Soviet Union (before 1991) / Total components of the former Soviet Union
      • 13 South Africa
      • 14 Canada
      • 15 United States
      • 16 Mexico
      • 17 Brazil
      • 18 China except Hong Kong
      • 19 Hong Kong
      • 1a Japan
      • 1b South Korea
      • 1c Taiwan
      • 1d India
      • 1e Singapore
      • 1f Israel
      • 1g Australia
      • 1h New Zealand
      • 1i All countries of the world