methods, notes and classification Duration of working life - annual data methods, notes and classification

DATA_DESCR The 'LFS main indicators' section presents a selection of the main statistics on the labour market. They encompass indicators of population, activity and inactivity; employment; unemployment; education and training. Those indicators are mainly but not only based on the results of the European Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS), in few cases integrated with data sources like national accounts employment or registered unemployment. As a result of the application of adjustments, corrections and reconciliation of EU Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS), 'LFS main indicators' is the most complete and reliable collection of employment and unemployment data available in the sub-domain ' Employment and unemployment'. The EU-LFS data used for 'LFS main indicators' are, where necessary, adjusted and enriched in various ways, in accordance with the specificities of an indicator. In order to ensure the consistency of the productivity of indicators, the primary source of information for employment growth and activity branches is National Accounts data (domestic concept), while the LFS data (national concept) are used for the gender and social breakdowns. For all others indicators, the most common adjustments cover: - correction of the main breaks in the LFS series - estimation of the missing values, (i.e. in case of missing quarters, annual results and EU aggregates are estimated using adjusted quarterly national labour force survey data or interpolations of the EU Labour Force Survey data with reference to the available quarter(s)) - reconciliations of the LFS data with other sources, mainly National Accounts (for Employment growth and activity branches) and national statistics on monthly unemployment (for Harmonised unemployment series). Those adjustments may produce significant differences between data published under 'LFS main indicators' and 'LFS series - Detailed survey results', particularly for the past years. For the most recent years these two series converge, resultingfrom the implementation of a continuous quarterly survey and the improved quality of the data. This page focuses on the particularities of 'LFS main indicators'. There are special pages for indicators 'employment growth',á'population in jobless households', 'average exit age of labour market' and 'education indicators: life-long learning, early school leavers and youth education attainment level. General information on the EU-LFS can be found in the ESMS page for 'Employment and unemployment (LFS)', see link in related metada. Detailed informationáon the main features, the legal basis, the methodology and the data as well as on the historical development of the EU-LFS is available on the EU-LFS (Statistics Explained) webpage.

CLASS_SYSTEM The 'LFS main indicators' are produced in accordance with the relevant international classification systems. The main classifications used are NACE Rev.1 (NACE Rev.1.1 from 2005) and NACE Rev. 2 (from 2008) for economic activity and ISCED 1997 for the level of education. For more details on classifications, levels of aggregation and transition rules, please consultáEU-LFS (Statistics Explained) - Methodology.

STAT_CONC_DEF The definitions of employment and unemployment, as well as other survey characteristics follow the definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation. The definition of unemployment is further precised in Commission Regulation (EC) Noá1897/2000. The main concepts related to the labour status are the following: Employed persons are all persons who worked at least one hour for pay or profit during the reference week or were temporarily absent from such work. Unemployed persons are all persons who were not employed during the reference week and had actively sought work during the past four weeks and were ready to begin working immediately or within two weeks. The active population (labour force) is defined as the sum of employed and unemployed persons. The inactive population consists of all persons who are classified neither as employed nor as unemployed. The indicators to supplement the unemployment rate are defined as follows: Underemployed part-time workers are persons working part-time who wish to work additional hours and are available to do so. Part-time work is recorded as self-reported by individuals. Persons seeking work but not immediately available are the sum of persons neither employed nor unemployed who: (a) are actively seeking work during the last 4 weeks but not available for work in the next 2 weeks; or (b)found a job to start in less than 3 months and are not available for work in the next 2 weeks; or (c) found a job to start in 3 months or more; or (d)are passively seeking work during the last 4 weeks and are available for work in the next 2 weeks. Persons available to work but not seeking are persons neither employed nor unemployed who want to work, are available for work in the next 2 weeks but are not seeking work. For more details, please consult theáEU-LFS (Statistics Explained) - Methodology.


STAT_POP The EU-LFS results cover the total population usually residing in Member States, except for persons living in collective or institutional households. While demographic data are gathered for all age groups, questions relating to labour market status are restricted to persons in the age group of 15 years or older. In the EFTA countries participating in LFS, i.e. Iceland, Norway and Switzerland, population data are not provided for the age-groups outside the scope of labour market questions. The EU-LFS covers all industries and occupations. For more details and exceptions, please consult please consult theáEU-LFS (Statistics Explained) - Methodology.

REF_AREA The 'LFS main indicators' cover all the territories of the Member States of the European Union, the EFTA countries (excluding Lichtenstein), as well as Candidate Countries. In case of Cyprus, however, the data only refer to the territory under the control of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus. Data for France do not include the overseas departments (DOM). A specific survey is conducted for these territories; however, the results are used in regional statistics only. Exceptionally, the geographical coverage of indicator employment growth is different. Please refer to the corresponding ESMS page for details.

BASE_PER Not applicable.

UNIT_MEASURE Most results measure number of persons (thousands). Some indicators are reported as rates (employment, unemployment rates) or growth rates. Some variables are reported in other units (ages in years, etc.).

    • Sex
      • 0 Total
      • 1 Males
      • 2 Females
    • Geopolitical entity (reporting)
      • 00 European Union - 27 countries (from 2020)
      • 01 European Union - 28 countries (2013-2020)
      • 02 Euro area - 19 countries (from 2015)
      • 03 Belgium
      • 04 Bulgaria
      • 05 Czechia
      • 06 Denmark
      • 07 Germany (until 1990 former territory of the FRG)
      • 08 Estonia
      • 09 Ireland
      • 0a Greece
      • 0b Spain
      • 0c France
      • 0d Croatia
      • 0e Italy
      • 0f Cyprus
      • 0g Latvia
      • 0h Lithuania
      • 0i Luxembourg
      • 0j Hungary
      • 0k Malta
      • 0l Netherlands
      • 0m Austria
      • 0n Poland
      • 0o Portugal
      • 0p Romania
      • 0q Slovenia
      • 0r Slovakia
      • 0s Finland
      • 0t Sweden
      • 0u Iceland
      • 0v Norway
      • 0w Switzerland
      • 0x United Kingdom
      • 0y Montenegro
      • 0z North Macedonia
      • 10 Serbia
      • 11 Turkey