methods, notes and classification The European Innovation scoreboard indicators methods, notes and classification

Science, Technology and Innovation

Science, technology and innovation are important drivers for the Europe 2020 growth strategy. Data in these fields collected by Eurostat serves both policymakers and scientists.

EU Policy context

Science, technology and innovation statistics have been acknowledged in 2010 by the Commission as to be closely linked to the policy activities carried out by the European Union. This places Innovation indicators as a key element in monitoring the objectives of the Innovation Union initiative and European Research Area (ERA) under the different priorities of the Europe 2020 Strategy.

Europe 2020 Strategy sets out a vision of Europe's social market economy for the 21st century and notably retained the 3% R&D intensity goal as one of the five headline targets to be achieved by the EU by 2020.

On 17 July 2012, the Commission adopted its Communication on "A Reinforced European Research Area (ERA) Partnership for Excellence and Growth". ERA is a unified research area open to the world based on the Internal market, in which researchers, scientific knowledge and technology circulate freely.

The measures in the Communication will have to be implemented by EU Member States, the Commission and Research Organisations to ensure the completion of ERA by 2014 as called for by the European Council.


A significant number of tables are published in Eurostat's dissemination database Eurobase under the heading of Science and Technology. The tables are divided into six domains and each domain comprises further sub-domains. The six domains are:

Research and development (R&D)

Domain comprises national statistics on R&D expenditure, R&D personnel and government budget appropriations or outlays on R&D (GBAORD). Data are collected in several occasions in a year and they consist of several breakdowns such as institutional R&D performing and funding sectors, types of costs and types of R&D, fields of science and economic activities. Derived indicator 'Gross domestic expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP' is one of the eight headline indicators of Europe 2020 strategy.

Community Innovation Survey (CIS)

This biennial national data collection shows information on enterprises' product and process innovations as well as organizational and marketing innovations. The core statistics and related indicators cover innovation activities, cooperation, development, expenditures and turnover. Each survey wave may additionally include other indicators like innovation objectives or information sources and analyze further particular aspects or drivers of enterprise innovation (eco-innovation in 2008, skills and creativity in 2010).


Statistics on High-tech are derived from different sources: EU-LFS, Structural Business Statistics, Exports/Imports, Structure or Earnings Statistics, CIS, R&D. Statistics on High-tech domain offer information on High-tech sectors and products which are defined based on the level of technological intensity. The list of indicators is covering employment, economic statistics in high-tech sectors and knowledge intensive services, as well as information on high-tech trade.


This domain features statistics derived from the European Patent Office (EPO) raw database PATSTAT, on patents from EPO, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), triadic patent families and Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) applications. Patent statistics breakdowns include the fields of the International Patent Classification (IPC); institutional sector, economic activities, foreign ownership and also High Tech patents and aggregations by several technology areas (i.e. ICT, biotechnology, nanotechnology, "green" energy technologies).

Human resources in science and technology (HRST)

This domain includes statistics derived from EU - Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) and Eurostat/Unesco/OECD data collection on education. They describe the current stock of HRST and give information on the current and future supply of highly skilled people from universities and other education institutions into the HRST stocks. The list of indicators refers to Human Resources in Science and Technology with breakdowns: by gender, age, nationality, country of birth, sector of economic activity, occupation, employment status. Job-to-job mobility and information regarding participation and graduation from tertiary education by gender and field of study are also covered.

Statistics on Careers of Doctorate Holders (CDH)

Statistics on Careers of Doctorate Holders (CDH) have been designed to produce indicators on the careers and mobility of research qualification holders, measuring their demographic, employment, career and salary characteristics, as well as their international and sectoral mobility. Data is available from voluntary survey for reference years 2006 and 2009.


Detailed information on surveys and indicators is available through the metadata files accompanying the Eurobase tables. The method of collection varies from one domain to another.

Research and development (R&D)

Data from national R&D surveys based on the Frascati Manual, OECD, 2002.

Community innovation survey (CIS)

Data from national CIS surveys based on the Oslo Manual, OECD/European Commission, 2005.

High-tech industry and knowledge-intensive services

Data from various sources collected in different ways; statistics compiled at Eurostat.


Data from the patent database PATSTAT hosted by European Patent Office (EPO). PATSTAT gathers data on applications to the EPO and around 70 national patent offices across the world (mainly USPTO and JPO) - statistics compiled at Eurostat.

Human resources in science and technology (HRST)

Data from the EU Labour Force Survey (LFS) and the Data Collection on Education Systems (UOE) according to the guidelines in the Canberra Manual, OECD, 1995 - statistics compiled at Eurostat.

Careers of doctorate holders

Data from the two first rounds (2006 and 2009) of the international survey on the Careers of Doctorate Holders (CDH), jointly carried out by Eurostat, the OECD and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics.


    • Innovation indicator
      • 0 Cooperation arrangements on innovation activities
      • 1 No cooperation arrangements on innovation activities
      • 2 Missing information for given variable
      • 3 Cooperation arrangements on innovation activities
      • 4 No cooperation arrangements on innovation activities
      • 5 Missing information for given variable
      • 6 Total innovation expenditure as a share of total turnover 2000
      • 7 Enterprises innovating inhouse by type of innovators
      • 8 Enterprises innovating in-house of the total population
      • 9 Turnover of new or significantly improved products, but not new to the market as a share of total turnover
      • a Turnover of new or significantly improved products, and new to the market as a share of total turnover
    • Classification of economic activities - NACE Rev.1.1
      • 0 Total - all NACE activities
      • 1 Industry (except construction)
      • 2 Mining and quarrying
      • 3 Manufacturing
      • 4 Electricity, gas and water supply
      • 5 Services (except public administration and community services; activities of households and extra-territorial organizations)
      • 6 Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods
      • 7 Transport, storage and communication
      • 8 Financial intermediation
      • 9 Real estate, renting and business activities
    • Size classes in number of employees
      • 0 Total
      • 1 From 10 to 49 employees
      • 2 From 10 to 249 employees
      • 3 From 50 to 249 employees
      • 4 250 employees or more
    • Unit of measure
      • 0 Rate
      • 1 Number
    • Breakdown by type of innovator
      • 0 Total enterprises
      • 1 Product and/or process innovative enterprises, regardless of organisational or marketing innovation (including enterprises with abandoned/suspended or on-going innovation activities)
      • 2 Novel innovators, product and/or process
      • 3 Product innovative enterprises only
      • 4 Process innovative enterprises only
      • 5 Product and process innovative enterprises only
      • 6 Enterprises with abandoned/suspended and on-going innovation activities only
      • 7 Non-innovative enterprises
    • Geopolitical entity (reporting)
      • 0 Belgium
      • 1 Denmark
      • 2 Germany (until 1990 former territory of the FRG)
      • 3 Greece
      • 4 Spain
      • 5 France
      • 6 Italy
      • 7 Luxembourg
      • 8 Netherlands
      • 9 Austria
      • a Portugal
      • b Finland
      • c Iceland
      • d Norway