methods, notes and classification Innovation activity and expenditure in 2006 methods, notes and classification

Science, Technology and Innovation

Science, technology and innovation are important drivers for the Europe 2020 growth strategy. Data in these fields collected by Eurostat serves both policymakers and scientists.

EU Policy context

Science, technology and innovation statistics have been acknowledged in 2010 by the Commission as to be closely linked to the policy activities carried out by the European Union. This places Innovation indicators as a key element in monitoring the objectives of the Innovation Union initiative and European Research Area (ERA) under the different priorities of the Europe 2020 Strategy.

Europe 2020 Strategy sets out a vision of Europe's social market economy for the 21st century and notably retained the 3% R&D intensity goal as one of the five headline targets to be achieved by the EU by 2020.

On 17 July 2012, the Commission adopted its Communication on "A Reinforced European Research Area (ERA) Partnership for Excellence and Growth". ERA is a unified research area open to the world based on the Internal market, in which researchers, scientific knowledge and technology circulate freely.

The measures in the Communication will have to be implemented by EU Member States, the Commission and Research Organisations to ensure the completion of ERA by 2014 as called for by the European Council.


A significant number of tables are published in Eurostat's dissemination database Eurobase under the heading of Science and Technology. The tables are divided into six domains and each domain comprises further sub-domains. The six domains are:

Research and development (R&D)

Domain comprises national statistics on R&D expenditure, R&D personnel and government budget appropriations or outlays on R&D (GBAORD). Data are collected in several occasions in a year and they consist of several breakdowns such as institutional R&D performing and funding sectors, types of costs and types of R&D, fields of science and economic activities. Derived indicator 'Gross domestic expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP' is one of the eight headline indicators of Europe 2020 strategy.

Community Innovation Survey (CIS)

This biennial national data collection shows information on enterprises' product and process innovations as well as organizational and marketing innovations. The core statistics and related indicators cover innovation activities, cooperation, development, expenditures and turnover. Each survey wave may additionally include other indicators like innovation objectives or information sources and analyze further particular aspects or drivers of enterprise innovation (eco-innovation in 2008, skills and creativity in 2010).


Statistics on High-tech are derived from different sources: EU-LFS, Structural Business Statistics, Exports/Imports, Structure or Earnings Statistics, CIS, R&D. Statistics on High-tech domain offer information on High-tech sectors and products which are defined based on the level of technological intensity. The list of indicators is covering employment, economic statistics in high-tech sectors and knowledge intensive services, as well as information on high-tech trade.


This domain features statistics derived from the European Patent Office (EPO) raw database PATSTAT, on patents from EPO, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), triadic patent families and Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) applications. Patent statistics breakdowns include the fields of the International Patent Classification (IPC); institutional sector, economic activities, foreign ownership and also High Tech patents and aggregations by several technology areas (i.e. ICT, biotechnology, nanotechnology, "green" energy technologies).

Human resources in science and technology (HRST)

This domain includes statistics derived from EU - Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) and Eurostat/Unesco/OECD data collection on education. They describe the current stock of HRST and give information on the current and future supply of highly skilled people from universities and other education institutions into the HRST stocks. The list of indicators refers to Human Resources in Science and Technology with breakdowns: by gender, age, nationality, country of birth, sector of economic activity, occupation, employment status. Job-to-job mobility and information regarding participation and graduation from tertiary education by gender and field of study are also covered.

Statistics on Careers of Doctorate Holders (CDH)

Statistics on Careers of Doctorate Holders (CDH) have been designed to produce indicators on the careers and mobility of research qualification holders, measuring their demographic, employment, career and salary characteristics, as well as their international and sectoral mobility. Data is available from voluntary survey for reference years 2006 and 2009.


Detailed information on surveys and indicators is available through the metadata files accompanying the Eurobase tables. The method of collection varies from one domain to another.

Research and development (R&D)

Data from national R&D surveys based on the Frascati Manual, OECD, 2002.

Community innovation survey (CIS)

Data from national CIS surveys based on the Oslo Manual, OECD/European Commission, 2005.

High-tech industry and knowledge-intensive services

Data from various sources collected in different ways; statistics compiled at Eurostat.


Data from the patent database PATSTAT hosted by European Patent Office (EPO). PATSTAT gathers data on applications to the EPO and around 70 national patent offices across the world (mainly USPTO and JPO) - statistics compiled at Eurostat.

Human resources in science and technology (HRST)

Data from the EU Labour Force Survey (LFS) and the Data Collection on Education Systems (UOE) according to the guidelines in the Canberra Manual, OECD, 1995 - statistics compiled at Eurostat.

Careers of doctorate holders

Data from the two first rounds (2006 and 2009) of the international survey on the Careers of Doctorate Holders (CDH), jointly carried out by Eurostat, the OECD and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics.


    • Innovation indicator
      • 0 Total innovation expenditure
      • 1 Enterprises, engaged in in-house R&D activities
      • 2 Enterprises, engaged in external R&D activities
      • 3 Enterprises, engaged in acquisition of machinery, equipment and software
      • 4 Enterprises, engaged in aquisition of other external knowledge
      • 5 Enterprises, engaged in training for innovation activities
      • 6 Enterprises, engaged in market introduction of innovations
      • 7 Enterprises, engaged in other innovation activities
      • 8 Enterprises, engaged in innovation activities
      • 9 Enterprises, engaged continuously in in-house R&D activities
      • a Enterprises, engaged occasionally in in-house R&D activities
      • b Expenditure in intramural R&D in 2006
      • c Expenditure in extramural R&D in 2006
      • d Expenditure for acquisition of machinery, equipment and software in 2006
      • e Expenditure for acquisition of other external knowledge in 2006
    • Classification of economic activities - NACE Rev.1.1
      • 00 All core NACE activities related to innovation activities (C, D, E, I, J, G51, K72, K74.2, K74.3)
      • 01 Industry (except construction)
      • 02 Mining and quarrying
      • 03 Mining of coal and lignite; extraction of peat
      • 04 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas; service activities incidental to oil and gas extraction, excluding surveying
      • 05 Mining of uranium and thorium ores
      • 06 Mining of metal ores
      • 07 Other mining and quarrying
      • 08 Manufacturing
      • 09 Manufacture of food products, beverages and tobacco
      • 0a Manufacture of food products and beverages
      • 0b Manufacture of tobacco products
      • 0c Manufacture of textiles and textile products; leather and leather products
      • 0d Manufacture of textiles
      • 0e Manufacture of wearing apparel; dressing; dyeing of fur
      • 0f Tanning and dressing of leather; manufacture of luggage, handbags, saddlery, harness and footwear
      • 0g Manufacture of wood and wood products, pulp, paper and paper products; publishing and printing
      • 0h Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture; manufacture of articles of straw and plaiting materials
      • 0i Manufacture of pulp, paper and paper products
      • 0j Publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media
      • 0k Manufacture of coke, refined petroleum products and nuclear fuel; chemicals, chemical products and man-made fibres; rubber and plastic products; other non-metallic mineral products
      • 0l Manufacture of coke, refined petroleum products and nuclear fuel
      • 0m Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products
      • 0n Manufacture of rubber and plastic products
      • 0o Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products
      • 0p Manufacture of basic metals and fabricated metal products
      • 0q Manufacture of basic metals
      • 0r Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
      • 0s Manufacture of machinery, equipment n.e.c.; and electrical and optical equipment
      • 0t Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c.
      • 0u Manufacture of office machinery and computers
      • 0v Manufacture of electrical machinery and apparatus n.e.c.
      • 0w Manufacture of radio, television and communication equipment and apparatus
      • 0x Manufacture of medical, precision and optical instruments, watches and clocks
      • 0y Manufacture of transport equipment
      • 0z Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers
      • 10 Manufacture of other transport equipment
      • 11 Manufacturing n.e.c.
      • 12 Manufacture of furniture; manufacturing n.e.c.
      • 13 Recycling
      • 14 Electricity, gas and water supply
      • 15 Electricity, gas, steam and hot water supply
      • 16 Collection, purification and distribution of water
      • 17 Construction
      • 18 Services (except public administration and community services; activities of households and extra-territorial organizations)
      • 19 Innovation core services activities (G51, I, J, K72, K74.2 and K74.3)
      • 1a Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods
      • 1b Sale, maintenance and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles; retail sale of automotive fuel
      • 1c Wholesale trade and commission trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles
      • 1d Retail trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles; repair of personal and household goods
      • 1e Hotels and restaurants
      • 1f Transport, storage and communication
      • 1g Land transport; transport via pipelines; water transport; air transport
      • 1h Land transport; transport via pipelines
      • 1i Water transport
      • 1j Air transport
      • 1k Supporting and auxiliary transport activities; activities of travel agencies
      • 1l Post and telecommunications
      • 1m Financial intermediation
      • 1n Financial intermediation, except insurance and pension funding
      • 1o Insurance and pension funding, except compulsory social security
      • 1p Activities auxiliary to financial intermediation
      • 1q Real estate, renting and business activities
      • 1r Innovation core business activities (K72, K74.2 and K74.3)
      • 1s Real estate activities
      • 1t Renting of machinery and equipment without operator and of personal and household goods
      • 1u Computer and related activities
      • 1v Research and development
      • 1w Other business activities
      • 1x Other innovation core business activities (K74.2 and K74.3)
    • Size classes in number of employees
      • 0 Total
      • 1 From 10 to 49 employees
      • 2 From 50 to 249 employees
      • 3 250 employees or more
    • Unit of measure
      • 0 Number
      • 1 Rate
    • Breakdown by type of innovator
      • 0 Product and/or process innovative enterprises, regardless of organisational or marketing innovation (including enterprises with abandoned/suspended or on-going innovation activities)
    • Geopolitical entity (reporting)
      • 0 Belgium
      • 1 Bulgaria
      • 2 Czech Republic
      • 3 Denmark
      • 4 Germany (until 1990 former territory of the FRG)
      • 5 Estonia
      • 6 Ireland
      • 7 Greece
      • 8 Spain
      • 9 France
      • a Croatia
      • b Cyprus
      • c Lithuania
      • d Luxembourg
      • e Hungary
      • f Malta
      • g Netherlands
      • h Austria
      • i Poland
      • j Portugal
      • k Romania
      • l Slovenia
      • m Slovakia
      • n Sweden
      • o Norway
      • p Turkey