There are 178 million hectares of forests and other wooded land in the EU, about 42 % of its land area. Over the past 20 years, forests have increased by 5% - approximately 0.3 % per year - although the rate varies substantially between countries. Approximately 133 million hectares or 32% of the EU's land area is covered by forests that are available for wood supply.
Ecologically, the EU's forests belong to many different biogeographical regions and have adapted to a variety of natural conditions, ranging from bogs to steppes and from lowland to alpine forests. Socioeconomically, they vary from small family holdings to state forests to large estates owned by companies, many as part of industrial wood supply chains.
Eurostat produces yearly data using two questionnaires,
* The Joint Forest Sector Questionnaire (JFSQ) on production and trade in wood and wood products. The JFSQ is part of a worldwide exercise in which Eurostat is responsible for the EU and EFTA countries. Our partners are UNECE, FAO and ITTO * Integrated environmental and economic accounting for forests (IEEAF); countries are currently providing data on economic accounts for forestry and logging. IEEAF is part of a Eurostat environmental satellite accounts initiative that started in the late 1990s.
The Joint Forest Sector Questionnaire provides us with
The IEEAF questionnaire
There is renewed interest from the countries in producing these data, the collection of which we re-started in 2008 after a break of several years. They show
We have early access to data on wood resources produced by our partner FAO. This is mainly the five-yearly Forest Resources Assessment, where all countries in the world are asked to report and forecast numbers on topics such as forest area, wood resources and removals.
We also have early access to similar five-yearly data collected by FOREST EUROPE, UNECE and FAO, e.g. on deadwood and carbon in deadwood, biomass, litter and forest soils. The data are published by the three organisations in their periodical report, for example in State of Europe’s Forests 2011 - Status and Tends in Sustainable Forest Management in Europe.
We use all available data to produce classical data series, as published on Eurostat's database, and different kinds of indicators for special publications.
The EU promotes sustainable forest management with the following objectives:
* Create and preserve jobs and otherwise contribute to rural livelihoods * Protect the environment by preserving the soil, minimising erosion, purifying water, protecting aquifers, improving air quality, absorbing carbon, mitigating climate change, and preserving biodiversity * Protect settlements, roads and other infrastructure from mudslides and avalanches * Monitor the state of forests to meet environmental agreements * Improve the competitiveness of forest-based industries in the internal market * Promote the use of wood and other forest products as environmentally friendly products * Reduce poverty in developing countries by furthering forest law enforcement, fair trade conditions and halting deforestation and illegal logging
In line with these policies, the EU adopted a five-year forest action plan in 2006. This plan provides for:
* Actions enhancing the multi-functional role of forests at the level of both the EU and the Member States * Co-ordination between the EU actions and the forest policies of the Member States
For many years, Eurostat has worked in close cooperation with international organisations in the Intersecretariat Working Group (IWG) on Forest Sector Statistics, with the aim of reducing the duplication of work.
The IWG brings together Eurostat, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Tropical Timber Organisation (ITTO) in collecting forest sector statistics; the European Commission’s Directorates- General for Agriculture and Rural Development, for Enterprise and Industry, and for the Environment are also represented.
The primary tool for statistical cooperation is the joint Eurostat/UNECE/FAO/ITTO forest sector questionnaire (JFSQ) on production and trade of roundwood and forest industry products, which is used by all organisations; each agency collects data from the countries for which it is responsible. Within this framework, Eurostat is responsible for the replies of EU and EFTA Member States.
The domain "forestry" contains data on production and trade of roundwood and forest industry products. The data cover the area of EU-25 and EFTA countries, candidate countries, Canada, USA and Russian Federation. The major groups of primary forest products included are: roundwood, sawnwood, wood-based panels, pulp and paper and paperboard.
* [IEEAF Handbook 2002] * [Le compte specifique de la sylviculture et de l'exploitation forestiere en France] * [The specific account of forestry and logging in France] * [Measuring Capital: OECD Manual 2009, Second Edition]
DATA_DESCR Eurostat'sádatabase covers 1) Production and trade in roundwood andáwood products, includingáprimary and secondary products 2) Economic data on forestry and logging, including employment data 3) Sustainable forest management, comprising forest resources (assets) and environmental data. The main types of primary forest products included in (1) are: roundwood, sawnwood, wood-based panels, pulp, and paper and paperboard. Secondaryáproducts include further processed wood and paper products. These products are presented in greater detail;ádefinitions are available. All of the data are compiled from the Joint Forest Sector Questionnaire (JFSQ), except for table (e), which is directly extracted fromáEurostat's international trade database COMEXT (HS/CN Chapter 44). The tablesáin (1)ácover details of the following topics: - Roundwood removals and production by type of wood and assortment (a) - Roundwood production by type of ownership (b) - Production and trade in roundwood, fuelwood and other basic products (c) - Trade in industrial roundwood by assortment and species (d) - Tropical wood imports to the EU from Chapter 44 of the Harmonised System (e) - Production and trade in sawnwood, panels and other primary products (f) - Sawnwood trade by species (g) - Production and trade in pulp and paper & paperboard (h) - Trade in secondary wood and paper products (i) Data in (2) include the output, intermediate consumption, gross value added, fixed capital consumption, gross fixed capital formation andádifferent measures of income of forestry and logging.á The data are inácurrent basic prices and are compatible with National Accounts. They are collected as part of Intergrated environmental and economic accounting for forests (IEEAF), which also coversálabour inputáináannual work units (AWU).á A separate table in (2) covers the number of employees of forestry and logging, as estimated from the Labour Force Survey results. More detailed information on wood products and accounting, including definitions and questionnaires,ácan be found on our open-access communication platform under the interest group 'Forestry statistics and accounts'.á Data in (3) are not collected by Eurostat, but by the FAO, UNECE, Forest Euope, theáEuropean Commission's departments for Environment and the Joint Research Centre. Theyáinclude forest area, wood volume, defoliation on sample plots, fires and areas with protective functions.
CLASS_SYSTEM The classification used for wood and woodáproducts is an aggregation of the Harmonised System / Combined Nomenclature (available on RAMON Eurostat's Metadata Server). The classifications used for forestry accounts are NACE Rev. 2 and CPA 2008. The classification used for tropical wood imports is the Harmonised System (HS) 2012, using all of Chapter 44 and, separately, the identified tropical items of Chapter 44. The Combined Nomenclature of the EU (CN)á2012 was used for the extraction, which is more detailed than the HS (eight digits instead of 6). áá
STAT_CONC_DEF Forestry statistics cover the production of and trade ináwood products for the EU and EFTA countries. Production is reported in physical units, while trade in basic products is covered in both monetary and physical units. Trade in secondary products is covered in monetary units only. Eurostat receives data on request from its partner organisations in the IWG and publishes them for the candidate countries, Canada, USA, the Russian Federation, China, India, Indonesia and Brazil. Removals of roundwood ácomprise all quantities of wood felled and removed from the forest and other wooded land or other felling sites. They are measured in cubic metres over bark (including the bark). Roundwood production is measured in cubic metres under bark (without bark).áThe data on production are also presented by ownership categories private forests, state forests and other publicly owned forests. The collection includes information on the total trade of each country and on its trade with countries outside the EU (extra-EU trade). The sum of extra-EU trade shows how the EU performs as a single market. Detailed information onáwood products and definitions can be found on our open-access communication platform under the interest group 'Forestry statistics and accounts'.ááá
STAT_UNIT Theáunits for the data on removals are private owners, state owners and other public ownersá of forests. For wood products, theáunit is the enterprise. In each country, different organisations/associations represent companies that supply and use roundwood and/or trade in roundwood and wood-products. Data are generally collected from the users of roundwood (theáwood industry companies or companies that trade in roundwood). There are however different methods used for the collection of basic data, e.g. in Sweden, the data on removals rely partly on the National Forest Inventories. In Finland, data are collected from roundwood buyers, i.e.áwood industry companies. The accounting data represent an aggregate for theáeconomic activitiesáof forestry and logging in each country.á
STAT_POP The statistical population is assortments of raw wood, primary wood and paper products, and secondary wood and paper products. For the accounting data, the population consists of all enterprises engaged in forestry and logging.
REF_AREA The data on wood products cover the EU Member States and EFTA countries, the candidate countries, Canada, USA, the Russian Federation, China, India, Indonesiaáand Brazil. Eurostat is responsible for compiling the data for the EU Member States and EFTA countries and receives the data for the other countries from the UNECE and FAO. The data onáaccounting cover the EU Member States and EFTA countries. All data for France on wood products and on accounting cover only mainland France without the overseas territories and dominions French Guyana, Guadeloupe, Martinique or RΘunion. Data on tropical wood imports covers Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Ghana, Indonesia, Liberia and the Republic of Congo (Brazzaville). These countries have already signed or agreed Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs) with the EU, as part of the EU's policy to fight illegal logging and associated trade. This policy was defined in 2003 with the Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) action plan. Licenses are to be issued by the countries that have agreed a bilateral VPA with the EU once the VPA agreements are concluded and legality assurance systems are implemented. The exporting countries must takeámeasures to ensure that only legally harvested timber bears a license. See also the 2012 Pocketbook on Energy, transport and environment indicators, p. 186. In addition, we publish data on tropical wood imports from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Guyana, Honduras, Malaysia and Vietnam. These countries are currently negotiating VPAs with the EU. The total imports from all twelve countries show the potential amounts ofáverified legal timber that could one day enter the EU. For this table, the EU includes all French overseas territories and dominions (Fr. Guyana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, RΘunion, Mayotte, etc.). See alsoáEurostat'sámetadata on international trade.ááá
BASE_PER Not applicable
UNIT_MEASURE The unit of measurement is the cubic metre (1000 m│) for roundwood, sawnwood, wood-based panels, veneer sheets, plywood, particleboard and fibreboard. For wood pulp and paper, the unit is the metric tonne (1000 t). Monetary values areáinánational currency (Euro or other) in current basic prices. The data on imports of tropical wood are in tonnes and Euro.