The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the EU’s instrument for the management of fishing and aquaculture. Fish stocks are regarded as a common resource, to be managed collectively. This is because:
* Fish are a natural, mobile and renewable resource * Fish cannot be owned until they have been caught * The actions of one group of fishermen impacts on other groups The CFP manages fisheries for the benefit of both fishing communities and consumers, and for the protection of resources.
The CFP is active in four main areas:
Conservation − Fish stocks need to be able to renew themselves as fish die due to natural causes, fishing, or other causes. To this end, the CFP:
The total allowable catch (TAC) − the maximum quantities of fish that may be caught every year
1970 − Rules were set concerning access to EC fishing grounds, markets and structures
1976 − Member States followed an international movement which extended rights over marine resources from 12 to 200 miles from a nation's coasts
1983 − The common fisheries policy (CFP) was launched
2002 − Reform of the CFP:
* A simpler system for limiting fishing capacity was introduced. The new system gave more responsibility to Member States to achieve a better balance between the fishing capacity of their fleets and available resources. * Funding for the modernisation of the fishing fleet was made available through the Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance (FIFG; 2000-06) and the European Fisheries Fund (EFF; 2007-13)
Fishery statistics are derived from official national sources either directly by Eurostat for the EEA member countries.
The data are collected using internationally agreed concepts and definitions developed by the Coordinating Working Party on Fishery Statistics, comprising Eurostat and several other international organisations with responsibilities in fishery statistics.
The domain "Fisheries"contains data on catches by fishing region, on aquaculture production, on total production, on landings in EEA ports, on trade in fishery products, on the EEA fishing fleet.
DATA_DESCR Since 2008 data are collected and disseminated in 6 tables: Production from aquaculture excluding hatcheries and nurseries (fish_aq2a)á by species, by FAO major area, by production method, by aquatic environment in TLW (tonnes live weight) and in Euro. Production of fish eggs for human consumption from aquaculture (fish_aq2b) by species, by FAO major area, by aquatic environment in TLW, Euro and Euro/Tonne. Input to capture-based aquaculture (fish_aq3) by species in Number, TLW, Euro and Euro/Tonne. Production of hatcheries and nurseries at eggs stage in life cycle (fish_aq4a) by species and intended uses in Millions. Production of hatcheries and nurseries at juveniles stage in life cycle (fish_aq4b) by species and intended uses in Millions. Data on the structure of the aquaculture sector (fish_aq5) by species, by FAO major area, by production method, by aquatic environment in Meters, 1000 of M3 and Hectares. áBefore 2008 aquaculture production in quantities (TLW) and in values (thousand of euro)á are disseminated in tables fish_aq_q and fish_aq_v. á
CLASS_SYSTEM Species Three types of codes are assigned to each species item: oááááááááá ISSCAAP code oááááááááá taxonomic code oááááááááá 3-alpha code The ISSCAAP code is assigned according to the FAO 'International Standard Statistical Classification for Aquatic Animals and Plants' (ISSCAAP) which divides commercial species into 50 groups on the basis of their taxonomic, ecological and economic characteristics. The taxonomic code is used by FAO for a more detailed classification of the species items and for sorting them out within each ISSCAAP group. The 3-alpha identifier is a unique code made of three letters that is widely used for the exchange of data with national correspondents and among fishery agencies. Aggregates of species groups have been developed within the database using the International Standard Statistical Classification of Aquatic Animals and Plants (ISSCAAP). A full list of these codes together with the English, French, Spanish and Scientific names may be found in the ASFIS file on the FAO web-site. Areas: For statistical purposes the world is divided into FAO Major Areas, namely 8 inland areas and 19 marine fishing areas. The FAO fishing area are available on the FAO website http://www.fao.org/fishery/area/search/en. á Production Method: Main production methods codes are listed and defined under the Regulation EC No 762/2008.á Aquatic environment: Aquatic environment codes are listed and defined under the Regulation EC No 762/2008. Intended uses: Intended uses codes are listed and defined under the Regulation EC No 762/2008. á
STAT_CONC_DEF Aquaculture is defined as the farming of aquatic organisms, including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming implies some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc. Farming also implies individual or corporate ownership of, or rights resulting from contractual arrangements to, the stock being cultivated. For statistical purposes, aquatic organisms which are harvested by an individual or corporate body which has owned them throughout their rearing period contribute to aquaculture, while aquatic organisms which are exploited by the public as a common property resource, with or without appropriate licences, are the harvest of fisheries. The concepts, definitions and classifications used in the compilation of these data are those developed by the Coordinating Working Party on Fishery Statistics and available in the Handbook of Fishery Statistical Standards. Species: All species for which production is reported to Eurostat or to FAO are included in this database. They are identified in the database by the internationally assigned three letter identifier (e.g. SAL = Atlantic salmon) according to the FAO ASFIS List of Species for Fishery Statistics Purposes Aquatic environment:The production is recorded by the environment in which it was made. The definitions applied to these environments are as follows: "Freshwater" applies to waters of rivers, streams, lakes, ponds and other enclosures where the water has a constant negligible salinity. "Sea water" applies to waters where the salinity is high and not subject to significant variation. "Brackish water" applies to waters where the salinity is appreciable but not at a constant high level. The salinity may be subject to considerable variation due to the influx of fresh or sea waters. Areas: The production is recorded by the area in which it was made. á Production Methods: The definitions applied to these production methods are as follows:
STAT_UNIT The basic statistical units are the production by the aquaculture enterprises. Although these records are available to the national authorities, only the national aggregates are submitted to the international agencies and are made available in this database
STAT_POP All fish, molluscs, crustaceans and other aquatic organisms produced in aquaculture enterprises
REF_AREA Mainly EU and associated countries
BASE_PER Not applicable.
UNIT_MEASURE Data for the volume of the production are expressed in tonnes live weight of the product. Data for the value of the production are expressed in Euros. Data of hatcheries and nurseries production are expressed in Millions. Data on the structure of the aquaculture sector are expressed in thousand of M3, Hectares or Meter according to the method.