methods, notes and classification Euro/ECU exchange rates - annual data methods, notes and classification

Exchange Rates

The Eurostat data on exchange rates cover four main areas:

  • Bilateral exchange rates between currencies. Bilateral exchange rates concern a pair of currencies. There are three different sets of data:

    • In relation to the euro (or the ECU before 1999) – i.e. in the form '1 euro/ECU = … units of the other currency'
    • Historical data – the bilateral exchange rates of the former national currencies of the euro area countries (Belgian Franc, Deutsche Mark, etc.) against the euro/ECU
    • Factors devised to help users in converting national time series of euro area countries expressed in euro ('euro fixed') into 'ECU/euro' and vice versa.
  • Fluctuations in the exchange rate mechanism (ERM and ERM II) of the EU. There are two different sets of data:

    • ERM (before 1999)
    • ERMII (after 1999)
  • Effective exchange rate indices. These data can be used as competitiveness indicators. There are two different sets:

    • Nominal effective exchange rates (NEER)
    • Real effective exchange rates (REER)
  • Former euro area national currencies exchange rates. These data are exchange rates and indices for the currencies which have joined the euro area since 1999.

Methodology

    • Statistical information
      • 0 Average
      • 1 Value at the end of the period
    • Unit of measure
      • 0 National currency
    • Currency
      • 00 Bulgarian lev
      • 01 Czech koruna
      • 02 Danish krone
      • 03 Croatian kuna
      • 04 Hungarian forint
      • 05 Polish zloty
      • 06 Romanian leu
      • 07 Swedish krona
      • 08 Pound sterling
      • 09 Swiss franc
      • 0a Icelandic krona
      • 0b Norwegian krone
      • 0c Albanian lek
      • 0d Denar (of North Macedonia)
      • 0e Serbian dinar
      • 0f Turkish lira
      • 0g Argentine peso
      • 0h Australian dollar
      • 0i Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark
      • 0j Brazilian real
      • 0k Canadian dollar
      • 0l Chinese renminbi-yuan
      • 0m Hong Kong dollar
      • 0n Indonesian rupiah
      • 0o Israeli shekel
      • 0p Indian rupee
      • 0q Japanese yen
      • 0r South Korean won
      • 0s Mexican peso
      • 0t Malaysian ringgit
      • 0u New Zealand dollar
      • 0v Philippine peso
      • 0w Russian rouble
      • 0x Singapore dollar
      • 0y Thai baht
      • 0z New Taiwan dollar
      • 10 US dollar
      • 11 South African rand