methods, notes and classification Conversion factors for euro fixed series into euro/ECU - monthly data methods, notes and classification

Exchange Rates

The Eurostat data on exchange rates cover four main areas:

  • Bilateral exchange rates between currencies. Bilateral exchange rates concern a pair of currencies. There are three different sets of data:

    • In relation to the euro (or the ECU before 1999) – i.e. in the form '1 euro/ECU = … units of the other currency'
    • Historical data – the bilateral exchange rates of the former national currencies of the euro area countries (Belgian Franc, Deutsche Mark, etc.) against the euro/ECU
    • Factors devised to help users in converting national time series of euro area countries expressed in euro ('euro fixed') into 'ECU/euro' and vice versa.
  • Fluctuations in the exchange rate mechanism (ERM and ERM II) of the EU. There are two different sets of data:

    • ERM (before 1999)
    • ERMII (after 1999)
  • Effective exchange rate indices. These data can be used as competitiveness indicators. There are two different sets:

    • Nominal effective exchange rates (NEER)
    • Real effective exchange rates (REER)
  • Former euro area national currencies exchange rates. These data are exchange rates and indices for the currencies which have joined the euro area since 1999.


    • Statistical information
      • 0 Average
      • 1 Value at the end of the period
    • Geopolitical entity (reporting)
      • 0 Belgium
      • 1 Germany (until 1990 former territory of the FRG)
      • 2 Estonia
      • 3 Ireland
      • 4 Greece
      • 5 Spain
      • 6 France
      • 7 Italy
      • 8 Cyprus
      • 9 Latvia
      • a Lithuania
      • b Luxembourg
      • c Malta
      • d Netherlands
      • e Austria
      • f Portugal
      • g Slovenia
      • h Slovakia
      • i Finland