methods, notes and classification Other activities on the holding: number of farms, agricultural area and economic size (ESU) by legal status of holding and other gainful activity of sole-holder methods, notes and classification

Agriculture

Agricultural statistics

Agricultural statistics were initially designed to monitor the main objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy, e.g. the production and supply of agricultural products and income in the agricultural sector. Today, agricultural statistics cover topics as diverse as

* farm structure,  
* utilisation of farming land,  
* labour input,  
* production,  
* supply/use,  
* prices and the  
* composition of agricultural income.  

Comprehensive information is available at both a national level and a regional level.

During the last 10-15 years new objectives have been introduced in relation to agricultural policy. These include

* protection of the environment,  
* sustainable farming practices,  
* food safety and security, and  
* animal welfare,as well as  
* broader perspectives relating to rural development.   

New indicators and statistics have been developed to provide information relating to these topics, for example, data relating to the use and impact of pesticides and nutrients. Another important priority in agricultural statistics has been to establish statistics that allow the evolution of organic farming to be followed.

Data

Economic accounts for agriculture

The agricultural accounts, a satellite to National Accounts, show detailed results of the income generated by agricultural activities over a given accounting period. Values for output, input, subsidies and taxes are available in current and constant prices. Furthermore, indices for the developments are shown. A main indicator is the real net value added at factor cost (Factor income) of agriculture per total annual work unit. Data are published in December (1st estimate for the year n), March (2nd estimate for the year n-1) and October (final data for the year n-1)

Structure of agricultural holdings

This summarises the main data in the Eurofarm database and contains the results of Community surveys on the structure of agricultural holdings, i.e. labour force, size of holdings, land use, livestock, subsistence farming. This domain also contains the main indicators on the structure of agricultural holdings by region.

Agricultural prices and price indices (EU and candidate countries)

This domain contains quarterly and annual data on agricultural price indices (2005=100) and annual data on absolute prices and agricultural land prices and rents. The agricultural price statistics provide information on the development of producer prices of agricultural products (output) as well as of the purchase prices (input) of the goods and services consumed by agriculture in the production process. Price indices data are available for single commodities and for larger aggregates at the country and EU level.

Agricultural products

This domain includes data shown in physical units (number, weight, quantity):

* land use, annual data;  
* livestock (number and structure), annual data;  
* crop production (area, yield, production), annual data;  
* meat, milk and milk products production and activity of hatcheries (incubation and trade), monthly and annual data; summary data (balance sheets), annual data.  

The countries concerned are the EU-27, candidate countries (Turkey) and other countries (Albania, countries from the former Yugoslavia, Norway).

Orchards survey

This domain contains data on the plantations of seven species of fruit trees: dessert apples, dessert pears, peaches, apricots, oranges, lemons and small-fruited citrus fruits; certain information is also available on cooking apples and cooking pears. The results referring to the characteristics of these species are: age classes, density and varieties, which are recorded per country and production zone.

Vineyard survey

This database contains the results of surveys of areas under vines (basic, every 10 years, and intermediate, annually) carried out by Member States with at least 500 ha under vines in the open air (Germany, Greece, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Spain, Austria and the United Kingdom) in accordance with Council Regulation (EEC) No 357/79 of February 1979. The aim is to assess the situation and developments in the grape-growing sector in the European Union.

Organic farming

‘Organic farming’ can be defined as a method of production which places the highest emphasis on environmental protection and, with regard to livestock production, animal welfare considerations. It avoids or largely reduces the use of synthetic chemical units such as fertilisers, pesticides, additives and medicinal products. It has to be understood as a part of a sustainable farming system and a viable alternative to the more traditional approaches to agriculture.

The database contains a set of summary tables intended to provide an overview of the situation regarding organic farming within the European Economic Area. It includes the number of certified operators (producers, transformers and importers), fully converted and under conversion organic agricultural area and organic livestock. The statistical information contained in the database refers only to organic farming practices that comply with EU legislation.

Regional Agriculture statistics

For the regional level, data are available for economic accounts, land use, animal population, crop production and milk production. The information may be less detailed than the figures for the whole country.

Farm structure

What is available

The Farm structure statistics provide harmonised data on agricultural holdings in the EU, including:

* Number of agricultural holdings  
* Land use and area (crops)  
* Livestock  
* Main crops  
* Farm Labour Force (including age, gender and relationship to the holder)   
* Economic size of the holdings  
* Type of activity  
* Other gainful activity on the farm  
* System of farming  
* Machinery  
* Organic farming   
Uses of the data

The purpose of the Farm structure surveys is to obtain reliable data, at regular intervals, on the structure of agricultural holdings in the European Union in order to:

* Assess the agricultural situation across the EU  
* Monitor trends and transitions in the structure of European farms (agricultural holdings)  
* Manage, evaluate and design the Common Agricultural Policy in its environmental, economical and social aspects.   

FSS data is also used in other policy areas such as environment, regional development and climate change.

Frequency of the surveys
* Every ten years, a full scope survey is carried out in the form of an agricultural census.  
* The Agricultural Census 2010 took place in EU Member States. The data are currently under validation process and the first validated results are published in the database. Provisional results for all countries are available in Statistics Explained: Agricultural census 2010 - provisional results  
* Every 2 or 3 years, between the censuses, sample surveys are carried out. 

The last sample survey was carried out in 2007. See results in the database.

Ad-hoc tables

Ad-hoc tables

Ad-hoc tables can be built for special requests.

Example: agricultural holders by age in the specialist dairying farms

Indeed, not all the information available is online:

* The survey collects 1 record per farm;  
* For each record there is over 200 variables collected; 

from all this information a bit less than 100 tables were designed and are available online in the database.

List of characteristics

See Annex III of Regulation 1166/2008 on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods

Historical results

Farm structure - Historical results - Surveys from 1966/67 to 1997 (PDF)

"This publication is intended to give the reader a picture of changes in the structure of agricultural holdings, in terms of land use, livestock, the labour force and types of farming."

Agricultural production

What is available

Agricultural production data refers to vegetable and animal production that is made available for human consumption and animal feed.

Crop production data include:

* cereals   
* main crops (dried pulses and protein crops, root crops, industrial crops, plants harvested green)  
* vegetables, melons and strawberries  
* permanent crops (fruits, olive trees and vineyards)  
* agricultural land use for utilised agricultural area (arable land, permanent crops, permanent grassland, …)   

and refer to:

* areas under cultivation (cereals and main crops), (expressed in 1 000 hectares),  
* harvested areas (vegetables), (expressed in 1 000 hectares),  
* production area (permanent crops) (expressed in 1 000 hectares),  
* harversted production (expressed in 1 000 tonnes) and  
* yield per hectare (expressed in 100 kg/hectare)   

Animal production data cover:

* bovine animals  
* sheep  
* goats   
* pigs  
* poultry  

And refer to:

* livestock (expressed in number of animals)  
* slaughtering (expressed in number of animals and tonnes)  
* milk and dairy production (quantities produced and used on farm and in dairies)  
* production of eggs for hatching  
* trade of chicks   
Uses of the data

Agricultural production data are used to define policy measures as diverse as:

* Analysing developments in agricultural markets and how they respond to policy actions;  
* Ensuring quality in food and animal feed  
* Promotion of farm products  
* Ensuring animal welfare and health  
* Actions in case of serious animal diseases or human health risk due to agricultural products.  

This data reflects the large diversity of agricultural products that are made available for consumption. Agricultural products are an important part of the cultural identity of European citizens and regions.

Agricultural production data can answer questions such as:
* What are the main crops harvested in the European Union?  
* How much milk is produced for consumption?   
* How is evolving the meat production from different cattle categories?  
* What is the share of cereal production between the Member States?  
* How is the agricultural land used in the Member States?  
* What are the shares of arable land and permanent crops?  
* Which European regions produce the goat and ewe milk?  

Methodology

Structure of agricultural holdings
* [Structure of agricultural holdings - metadata][3]  
* [National methodological reports][4] 
Economic Accounts for Agriculture
* [Economic Accounts for Agriculture - metadata][5]
Agricultural prices and price indices
* [Selling prices of agricultural products (absolute prices), land prices and rents][6]  
* [Price indices of agricultural products][7] 
Agricultural production
* [Agricultural production data - Methodological notes][8]  
* [Crops products: areas and productions][9]  
* [Crops products: supply balances sheets][10]  
* [Livestock and meat][11] 
Structure of orchards and vineyards
* [Orchard][12]  
* [Vineyard ][13]

Legislation

The following list presents the main legal acts relating to agricultural statistics. For more information, please consult EUR-Lex.

Farm Structure

Up to FSS 2007 (consolidated texts)

* [Council Regulation (EEC) No 571/88 of 29 February 1988 on the organization of Community surveys on the structure of agricultural holdings][14]  
* [Commission Decision (EC) No 115/2000 of 24 November 1999 relating to the definitions of the characteristics, the list of agricultural products, the exceptions to the definitions and the regions and districts regarding the surveys on the structure of agricultural holdings][15]  
* [Commission Decision of 7 June 1985 establishing a Community typology for agricultural holdings (85/377/EEC)][16]  

FSS 2010 onwards

* [Commission Regulation (EC) No 1200/2009 of 30 November 2009 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods, as regards livestock unit coefficients and definitions of the characteristics][17]  
* [Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 571/88][18]  
* [Commission Regulation (EC) No 1242/2008 of 8 December 2008 establishing a Community typology for agricultural holdings][19]   
Economic accounts for agriculture
* [Regulation (EC) No 138/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 December 2003 on the economic accounts for agriculture in the Community][20] 
Cereals and other crop products
* [Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council (EC) No 543/2009 of 29 June 2009 concerning crop statistics and repealing Council Regulations (EEC) 837/90 and (EEC) 959/93][21] 
Poultry farming
* [Commission Regulation (EC) No. 617/2008 of 27 June 2008 laying down detailed rules for implementing Regulation (EC) No. 1234/2007 as regards marketing standards for eggs for hatching and farmyard poultry chicks][22] 
Milk and milk products
* [Council Directive No 96/16/EC of 19 March 1996 on statistical surveys of milk and milk products][23]  
* [Commission Decision No 97/80/EC of 18 December 1996 laying down provisions for the implementation of Council Directive No 96/16/EC on statistical surveys of milk and milk products ][24]
Animal production
* [Regulation (EC) No 1165/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 concerning livestock and meat statistics and repealing Council Directives 93/23/EEC, 93/24/EEC and 93/25/EEC ][25]
Wine market
* [Commission Regulation (EC) No 1282/2001 of 28 June 2001 laying down detailed rules for the application of Council Regulation (EC) No 1493/1999 as regards the gathering of information to identify wine products and to monitor the wine market and amending Regulation (EC) No 1623/2000 ][26]

DATA_DESCR This collection provides users with data concerning R&D expenditure and R&D personnel broken down by following institutional sectors: business enterprise (BES), government (GOV), higher education (HES), private non-profit (PNP) and total of sectors. All data are broken down by the above mentioned sectors of performance. The R&D expenditure is further broken down by source of funds, by type of costs, by type of economic activity (NACE), by size class, by type of R&D, by fields of science, by socio-economic objectives and by regions (NUTS 2). Besides R&D expenditures in basic unit National currency (MIO_NAC) the following units are available: Euro (MIO_EUR), Euro per inhabitant (EUR_HAB) Purchasing Power Standard (MIO_PPS), Purchasing Power Standard at 2000 prices (MIO_PPS_KP00), Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant at constant 2000 prices (PPS_KP00_HAB), Percentage of GDP (PC_GDP). R&D personnel data is available in full-time equivalent (FTE), in head count (HC), as a % of employment and as a % of labour force. The data is further broken down by occupation, by qualification, by gender, by size class, by citizenship, by age groups, by fields of science, by economic activity (NACE) and by regions (NUTS 2). More details on breakdowns, derivations and different units available are found in the Eurostat indicators on R&D (See annex at the bottom of the page). R&D data are available for following countries and country groups: - All EU Member States, plus Candidate Countries, EFTA Countries, the Russian Federation, China, Japan, the United States and South Korea.- Country groups: EU-27, EU-15 and EA-17. R&D data are compiled in accordance to the guidelines laid down in the Proposed standard practice for surveys of research and experimental development - Frascati Manual (FM), OECD, 2002 (See annex at the bottom of the page).

CLASS_SYSTEM R&D statistics are compiled in line with international statistical classifications such as ISIC, NACE, FOS, ISCED and NABS and are to some extent adapted to the system of national accounts (SNA) according to the FM recommendations (See annex at the bottom of the page). In addition to the FM recommendations (See annex at the bottom of the page), regional breakdown for EU Member States, Candidate Countries and EFTA countries are complied following the Regional Dimension of R&D and Innovation Statistics - Regional Manual, European Commission, 2003 (See annex at the bottom of the page). and the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, NUTS, Eurostat. The regional breakdown of the EU Member States is based on the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statisticsá(NUTS).

STAT_CONC_DEF "Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." (º 57, Frascati Manual, OECD 2002 - See annex at the bottom of the page). Eurostat statistics on R&D expenditure and personnel are compiled using the guidelines laid out in the Frascati Manualá- (See annex at the bottom of the page), the "Proposed standard practice for surveys of research and experimental development", which in its latest version was published in 2002, by the OECD. Eurostat online tables and data contain R&D expenditure and personnel broken down by different classifications. The main breakdown of R&D statistics is by four institutional sectors of performance. These four sectors of performance are the business enterprise sector (BES), the government sector (GOV), the higher education sector (HES) and the private non-profit sector (PNP). Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) is consequently composed of: Business enterprise expenditure on R&D (BERD), Higher Education expenditure on R&D (HERD), Government expenditure on R&D (GOVERD) and Private Non-profit expenditure on R&D (PNPRD). Additional breakdowns of R&D expenditure available are: by source of funds, by fields of science, by type of costs, byáeconomic activity (NACE), by size class, by type of R&D, by socio-economic objectives and by regions (NUTS 2). Basic data on R&D personnel are expressed as head count (HC) and full time equivalents (FTE). Total national R&D personnel is obtained by summing up the R&D personnel employed in the four different sectors of performance. Additional breakdowns of R&D personnel available are: by occupation, by qualification, by gender, by size class, by citizenship, by age groups, by fields of science, type of economic activity (NACE)áand by regions (NUTS 2). More details on breakdowns, derivations and different units available are found in the Eurostat indicators on R&D (See annex at the bottom of the page). Main methodological references and definitions are available through methodological references (See annex at the bottom of the page).

STAT_UNIT Statistical units used in the national R&D surveys vary according to country and the sector surveyed. In the business enterprise sector (BES) the statistical unit often consists of the legal business entity. Sometimes, if R&D activity can be subdivided, the statistical unit consists of the economic activity unit. The statistical unit in the government sector (GOV) should according to FM recommendations (See annex at the bottom of the page)ábe similar to the legal entities in the BES. Examples of such statistical units are departments and establishments of the government, as well as other public bodies, institutes and non-profit organisations which are financed by central or local governments. Legal entity is also the recommended statistical unit for the Private Non-Profit (PNP) sector, which includes non-market private institutions, households and private individuals. If such an entity has significant R&D activity in more than one field of science an attempt is made to split the entity into smaller units according to the relevant major fields. Since a legal entity type of unit in the higher education sector (HES) often is involved in more than one major field of science a smaller statistical unit is normally appropriate. The FM (See annex at the bottom of the page) (º 225, 2002-version) recommends as a statistical unit "the smallest homogenous unit predominantly involved in one of the six fields and for which a complete (or almost complete) set of factor input data can be obtained". Departments, faculties, colleges, university hospitals or clinics, research institutes and centres, are examples of statistical units chosen for this sector.

STAT_POP The population surveyed varies according to the institutional sectors. In the business enterprises sector (BES), countries usually survey, by census or by sample, businesses that are known to perform R&D or to be potential R&D performers. In the other sectors, the government sector (GOV) and the higher education sector (HES), all entities are generally surveyed.

REF_AREA R&D statistics are currently available for EU Member States and Candidate Countries, EFTA Countries, the Russian Federation, China, Japan, the United States and South Korea. Regional R&D statistics is normally available for EU Member States, Candidate and EFTA countries. Besides national and regional statistics Eurostat calculates and disseminates aggregates at the EU-and Euro-area-levels (EU-27, EU-15 and EA-17).

BASE_PER The base year for the unit Purchasing Power Standard (PPS) and PPS per inhabitant at constant prices is currently 2000. All calculations of non-basic unit (national currencies) are done by Eurostat.

UNIT_MEASURE R&D expenditure is available in the following units: National currency (MIO_NAC), Euro (MIO_EUR), Euro per inhabitant (EUR_HAB) Purchasing Power Standard (MIO_PPS), Purchasing Power Standard at 2000 prices (MIO_PPS_KP00), Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant at constant 2000 prices (PPS_KP00_HAB), Percentage of GDP (PC_GDP). R&D personnel data is available in full-time equivalent (FTE), in head count (HC), as a % of employment and as a % of labour force.

    • Other gainful activity of the holder
      • 0 Main other gainful activity of the holder-manager
      • 1 Subsidiary other gainful activity of the holder-manager
      • 2 No other gainful activity of the holder-manager
      • 3 Sole-holder is not the manager
      • 4 Holding is a legal person or group holding
      • 5 Total
    • Legal type of the holding
      • 0 Total
      • 1 Sole holder holding
      • 2 Holding is legal entity
      • 3 Group holdings
    • Variable
      • 0 Holdings with another gainful activity
      • 1 Holdings with tourism as other gainful activity
      • 2 Holdings with handicraft as other gainful activity
      • 3 Holdings with processing of farm products as other gainful activity
      • 4 Holdings with wood processing as other gainful activity
      • 5 Holdings with aquaculture as other gainful activity
      • 6 Holdings with renewable energy production as other gainful activity
      • 7 Holdings with contractual work as other gainful activity
      • 8 Holdings with other gainful activities n.a.e. as other gainful activity
    • Unit
      • 0 ha (Agricultural area)
      • 1 ESU (Economic size)
      • 2 Number of holdings
    • Geopolitical entity (declaring)
      • 0 Belgium
      • 1 Bulgaria
      • 2 Czech Republic
      • 3 Denmark
      • 4 Germany (including former GDR from 1991)
      • 5 Estonia
      • 6 Ireland
      • 7 Greece
      • 8 Spain
      • 9 France
      • a France (metropolitan)
      • b Italy
      • c Cyprus
      • d Latvia
      • e Lithuania
      • f Luxembourg
      • g Hungary
      • h Malta
      • i Netherlands
      • j Austria
      • k Poland
      • l Portugal
      • m Romania
      • n Slovenia
      • o Slovakia
      • p Finland
      • q Sweden
      • r United Kingdom
      • s Norway