methods, notes and classification Live births by mother's age and birth order methods, notes and classification

DATA_DESCR This collection provides users with data concerning R&D expenditure and R&D personnel broken down by following institutional sectors: business enterprise (BES), government (GOV), higher education (HES), private non-profit (PNP) and total of sectors. All data are broken down by the above mentioned sectors of performance. The R&D expenditure is further broken down by source of funds, by type of costs, by type of economic activity (NACE), by size class, by type of R&D, by fields of science, by socio-economic objectives and by regions (NUTS 2). Besides R&D expenditures in basic unit National currency (MIO_NAC) the following units are available: Euro (MIO_EUR), Euro per inhabitant (EUR_HAB) Purchasing Power Standard (MIO_PPS), Purchasing Power Standard at 2000 prices (MIO_PPS_KP00), Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant at constant 2000 prices (PPS_KP00_HAB), Percentage of GDP (PC_GDP). R&D personnel data is available in full-time equivalent (FTE), in head count (HC), as a % of employment and as a % of labour force. The data is further broken down by occupation, by qualification, by gender, by size class, by citizenship, by age groups, by fields of science, by economic activity (NACE) and by regions (NUTS 2). More details on breakdowns, derivations and different units available are found in the Eurostat indicators on R&D (See annex at the bottom of the page). R&D data are available for following countries and country groups: - All EU Member States, plus Candidate Countries, EFTA Countries, the Russian Federation, China, Japan, the United States and South Korea.- Country groups: EU-27, EU-15 and EA-17. R&D data are compiled in accordance to the guidelines laid down in the Proposed standard practice for surveys of research and experimental development - Frascati Manual (FM), OECD, 2002 (See annex at the bottom of the page).

CLASS_SYSTEM R&D statistics are compiled in line with international statistical classifications such as ISIC, NACE, FOS, ISCED and NABS and are to some extent adapted to the system of national accounts (SNA) according to the FM recommendations (See annex at the bottom of the page). In addition to the FM recommendations (See annex at the bottom of the page), regional breakdown for EU Member States, Candidate Countries and EFTA countries are complied following the Regional Dimension of R&D and Innovation Statistics - Regional Manual, European Commission, 2003 (See annex at the bottom of the page). and the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, NUTS, Eurostat. The regional breakdown of the EU Member States is based on the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statisticsá(NUTS).

STAT_CONC_DEF "Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." (º 57, Frascati Manual, OECD 2002 - See annex at the bottom of the page). Eurostat statistics on R&D expenditure and personnel are compiled using the guidelines laid out in the Frascati Manualá- (See annex at the bottom of the page), the "Proposed standard practice for surveys of research and experimental development", which in its latest version was published in 2002, by the OECD. Eurostat online tables and data contain R&D expenditure and personnel broken down by different classifications. The main breakdown of R&D statistics is by four institutional sectors of performance. These four sectors of performance are the business enterprise sector (BES), the government sector (GOV), the higher education sector (HES) and the private non-profit sector (PNP). Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) is consequently composed of: Business enterprise expenditure on R&D (BERD), Higher Education expenditure on R&D (HERD), Government expenditure on R&D (GOVERD) and Private Non-profit expenditure on R&D (PNPRD). Additional breakdowns of R&D expenditure available are: by source of funds, by fields of science, by type of costs, byáeconomic activity (NACE), by size class, by type of R&D, by socio-economic objectives and by regions (NUTS 2). Basic data on R&D personnel are expressed as head count (HC) and full time equivalents (FTE). Total national R&D personnel is obtained by summing up the R&D personnel employed in the four different sectors of performance. Additional breakdowns of R&D personnel available are: by occupation, by qualification, by gender, by size class, by citizenship, by age groups, by fields of science, type of economic activity (NACE)áand by regions (NUTS 2). More details on breakdowns, derivations and different units available are found in the Eurostat indicators on R&D (See annex at the bottom of the page). Main methodological references and definitions are available through methodological references (See annex at the bottom of the page).

STAT_UNIT Statistical units used in the national R&D surveys vary according to country and the sector surveyed. In the business enterprise sector (BES) the statistical unit often consists of the legal business entity. Sometimes, if R&D activity can be subdivided, the statistical unit consists of the economic activity unit. The statistical unit in the government sector (GOV) should according to FM recommendations (See annex at the bottom of the page)ábe similar to the legal entities in the BES. Examples of such statistical units are departments and establishments of the government, as well as other public bodies, institutes and non-profit organisations which are financed by central or local governments. Legal entity is also the recommended statistical unit for the Private Non-Profit (PNP) sector, which includes non-market private institutions, households and private individuals. If such an entity has significant R&D activity in more than one field of science an attempt is made to split the entity into smaller units according to the relevant major fields. Since a legal entity type of unit in the higher education sector (HES) often is involved in more than one major field of science a smaller statistical unit is normally appropriate. The FM (See annex at the bottom of the page) (º 225, 2002-version) recommends as a statistical unit "the smallest homogenous unit predominantly involved in one of the six fields and for which a complete (or almost complete) set of factor input data can be obtained". Departments, faculties, colleges, university hospitals or clinics, research institutes and centres, are examples of statistical units chosen for this sector.

STAT_POP The population surveyed varies according to the institutional sectors. In the business enterprises sector (BES), countries usually survey, by census or by sample, businesses that are known to perform R&D or to be potential R&D performers. In the other sectors, the government sector (GOV) and the higher education sector (HES), all entities are generally surveyed.

REF_AREA R&D statistics are currently available for EU Member States and Candidate Countries, EFTA Countries, the Russian Federation, China, Japan, the United States and South Korea. Regional R&D statistics is normally available for EU Member States, Candidate and EFTA countries. Besides national and regional statistics Eurostat calculates and disseminates aggregates at the EU-and Euro-area-levels (EU-27, EU-15 and EA-17).

BASE_PER The base year for the unit Purchasing Power Standard (PPS) and PPS per inhabitant at constant prices is currently 2000. All calculations of non-basic unit (national currencies) are done by Eurostat.

UNIT_MEASURE R&D expenditure is available in the following units: National currency (MIO_NAC), Euro (MIO_EUR), Euro per inhabitant (EUR_HAB) Purchasing Power Standard (MIO_PPS), Purchasing Power Standard at 2000 prices (MIO_PPS_KP00), Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant at constant 2000 prices (PPS_KP00_HAB), Percentage of GDP (PC_GDP). R&D personnel data is available in full-time equivalent (FTE), in head count (HC), as a % of employment and as a % of labour force.

    • Unit of measure
      • 0 Number
    • Age class
      • 00 Total
      • 01 From 10 to 14 years
      • 02 15 years
      • 03 From 15 to 19 years
      • 04 16 years
      • 05 17 years
      • 06 18 years
      • 07 19 years
      • 08 20 years
      • 09 From 20 to 24 years
      • 0a 21 years
      • 0b 22 years
      • 0c 23 years
      • 0d 24 years
      • 0e 25 years
      • 0f From 25 to 29 years
      • 0g 26 years
      • 0h 27 years
      • 0i 28 years
      • 0j 29 years
      • 0k 30 years
      • 0l From 30 to 34 years
      • 0m 31 years
      • 0n 32 years
      • 0o 33 years
      • 0p 34 years
      • 0q 35 years
      • 0r From 35 to 39 years
      • 0s 36 years
      • 0t 37 years
      • 0u 38 years
      • 0v 39 years
      • 0w 40 years
      • 0x From 40 to 44 years
      • 0y 41 years
      • 0z 42 years
      • 10 43 years
      • 11 44 years
      • 12 45 years
      • 13 From 45 to 49 years
      • 14 46 years
      • 15 47 years
      • 16 48 years
      • 17 49 years
      • 18 50 years or over
      • 19 Unknown
    • Birth order
      • 0 Total
      • 1 First
      • 2 Second
      • 3 Third
      • 4 Fourth and following
      • 5 Unknown
    • Geopolitical entity (reporting)
      • 00 European Union - 27 countries (from 2020)
      • 01 European Union - 28 countries (2013-2020)
      • 02 European Union - 27 countries (2007-2013)
      • 03 Euro area - 19 countries (from 2015)
      • 04 Euro area - 18 countries (2014)
      • 05 Belgium
      • 06 Bulgaria
      • 07 Czechia
      • 08 Denmark
      • 09 Germany (until 1990 former territory of the FRG)
      • 0a Germany including former GDR
      • 0b Estonia
      • 0c Ireland
      • 0d Greece
      • 0e Spain
      • 0f France
      • 0g France (metropolitan)
      • 0h Croatia
      • 0i Italy
      • 0j Cyprus
      • 0k Latvia
      • 0l Lithuania
      • 0m Luxembourg
      • 0n Hungary
      • 0o Malta
      • 0p Netherlands
      • 0q Austria
      • 0r Poland
      • 0s Portugal
      • 0t Romania
      • 0u Slovenia
      • 0v Slovakia
      • 0w Finland
      • 0x Sweden
      • 0y European Free Trade Association
      • 0z Iceland
      • 10 Liechtenstein
      • 11 Norway
      • 12 Switzerland
      • 13 United Kingdom
      • 14 Montenegro
      • 15 North Macedonia
      • 16 Albania
      • 17 Serbia
      • 18 Turkey
      • 19 Belarus
      • 1a Bosnia and Herzegovina
      • 1b Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)
      • 1c Moldova
      • 1d Russia
      • 1e San Marino
      • 1f Ukraine
      • 1g Armenia
      • 1h Azerbaijan
      • 1i Georgia