methods, notes and classification EU direct investment flows, breakdown by partner country and economic activity (NACE Rev. 2) methods, notes and classification

DATA_DESCR Eurostat uses as a base for its work the OECD Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment Third Edition, a detailed operational definition fully consistent with the IMF Balance of Payments Manual, Fifth Edition, BPM5. Foreign direct investment (FDI) is the category of international investment made by an entity resident in one economy (direct investor) to acquire a lasting interest in an enterprise operating in another economy (direct investment enterprise). The lasting interest is deemed to exist if the direct investor acquires at least 10% of the voting power of the direct investment enterprise. FDI statistics record separately: 1) Inward FDI (or FDI in the reporting economy), namely investment by foreigners in enterprises resident in the reporting economy. 2) Outward FDI (or FDI abroad), namely investment by residents entities in affiliated enterprises abroad. FDI statistics record both the initial investment and all subsequent investment made by the direct investor, either in the form of equity capital, or in the form of loans, or in the form of reinvesting earnings. Investment made through other affiliated enterprises of the same group of the direct investor should also be recorded according to the international methodology. There are three main indicators: FDI flows, stocks and income. The indicators described in more detail below are presented in the complete tables with a breakdown by partner country or region and a breakdown by the kind of activity in which FDI is made. In the table called "Main indicators" there is a reduced breakdown by partners and data for total activity only. See the part on classification system for more detail. See also the User's guideon the structure on the database and for practical information on data downloading. 1) FDI flows denote the new investment made during the period. FDI flows are recorded in the Balance of Payments financial account. Total FDI flows are broken down by kind of instrument used for making the investment: Equity capital comprises equity in branches, all shares in subsidiaries and associates (except non-participating, preferred shares that are treated as debt securities and are included under other FDI capital) and other contributions such as the provision of machinery. Reinvested earnings consist of the direct investor's share (in proportion to equity participation) of earnings not distributed by the direct investment enterprise. Reinvested earnings are an imputed transaction. Reinvested earnings are also recorded with opposite sign among FDI income (see below). This recording represents not distributed income as being earned by the direct investor and reinvested in the direct investment enterprise at the same time. Other FDI capital (loans) covers the borrowing and lending of funds, including debt securities and trade credits between direct investors and direct investment enterprises. Debt transactions between affiliated financial intermediaries recorded under direct investment flows are limited to permanent debt. 2) FDI stocks (or positions) denote the value of the investment at the end of the period. FDI stocks are recorded in the International Investment Position. Outward FDI stocks are recorded as assets of the reporting economy, inward FDI stocks as liabilities. Similarly with flows, FDI stocks are broken down by kind of instrument. However, there are only two categories instead of three: Equity capital and reinvested earnings is the value of the own capital of the enterprise, including the value of own reserves that are accumulated from past reinvested earnings. Reserves corresponding to reinvested earnings are not shown separately from other equity capital as in the case of flows. Other FDI capital is the stock of debts (assets or liabilities) between the direct investors and the direct investment enterprise. 3) FDI income is the income accruing to direct investors during the period. FDI income is recorded in the current account of the Balance of Payments. Total FDI income is broken down by kind of income. The categories of FDI income available are linked to the breakdown of FDI flows and stocks by kind of instrument, namely: Dividends Dividends payable in the period and branch profits remitted to the direct investor, gross of any withholding taxes. Dividends include payments due on common and preferred shares. Reinvested earnings See definition under FDI flows. Interest on loans Interest accrued in the period on loans (other FDI capital) with affiliated enterprises, gross of any withholding tax. 4) FDI intensity Out of FDI annual data, an indicator useful to measure EU market integration is also calculated and disseminated in the domain Structural Indicators: FDI intensity as % of GDP: Average of inward and outward FDI flows divided by GDP. A higher index indicates higher new FDI during the period in relation to the size of the economy as measured by GDP. If this index increases over time, then the country/zone is becoming more integrated with the international economy.

CLASS_SYSTEM The main general reference classifications used are contained in the IMF Balance of Payments Manual, Fifth Edition, BPM5ááand the OECD Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment Third Edition. For the classification of FDI by economic activity, the reference classification is NACE Rev. 1.1 (up to reference year 2009) and the NACE Rev.2 (from reference year 2008). For the classification by partner country or region see the list of partners. For a detailed description of the classifications used, see the áBoP Vademecum.

STAT_CONC_DEF Eurostat uses as a base for its work the OECD Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment Third Edition, a detailed operational definition fully consistent with the IMF Balance of Payments Manual, Fifth Edition, BPM5. Foreign direct investment (FDI) is the category of international investment made by an entity resident in one economy (direct investor) to acquire a lasting interest in an enterprise operating in another economy (direct investment enterprise). The lasting interest is deemed to exist if the direct investor acquires at least 10% of the voting power of the direct investment enterprise. FDI statistics record separately: 1) Inward FDI (or FDI in the reporting economy), namely investment by foreigners in enterprises resident in the reporting economy. 2) Outward FDI (or FDI abroad), namely investment by residents entities in affiliated enterprises abroad. FDI statistics record both the initial investment and all subsequent investment made by the direct investor, either in the form of equity capital, or in the form of loans, or in the form of reinvesting earnings. Investment made through other affiliated enterprises of the same group of the direct investor should also be recorded according to the international methodology.á There are three main indicators presented: FDI flows, stocks and income. These indicators are described in more detail below and are presented in the complete tables with a breakdown by partner country or region and a breakdown by the kind of activity in which FDI is made. In the table called "Main indicators" there is a reduced breakdown by partners and data for total activity only. See the part on classification system for more detail. See also the User's guideon the structure on the database and for practical information on data downloading. 1) FDI flows denote the new investment made during the period. FDI flows are recorded in the Balance of Payments financial account. Total FDI flows are broken down by kind of instrument used for making the investment: Equity capital comprises equity in branches, all shares in subsidiaries and associates (except non-participating, preferred shares that are treated as debt securities and are included under other FDI capital) and other contributions such as the provision of machinery. Reinvested earnings consist of the direct investor's share (in proportion to equity participation) of earnings not distributed by the direct investment enterprise. Reinvested earnings are an imputed transaction. Reinvested earnings are also recorded with opposite sign among FDI income (see below). This recording represents not distributed income as being earned by the direct investor and reinvested in the direct investment enterprise at the same time. Other FDI capital (loans) covers the borrowing and lending of funds, including debt securities and trade credits between direct investors and direct investment enterprises. Debt transactions between affiliated financial intermediaries recorded under direct investment flows are limited to permanent debt. 2) FDI stocks (or positions) denote the value of the investment at the end of the period. FDI stocks are recorded in the International Investment Position. Outward FDI stocks are recorded as assets of the reporting economy, inward FDI stocks as liabilities. Similarly with flows, FDI stocks are broken down by kind of instrument. However, there are only two categories instead of three: Equity capital and reinvested earnings is the value of the own capital of the enterprise, including the value of own reserves that are accumulated from past reinvested earnings. Reserves corresponding to reinvested earnings are not shown separately from other equity capital as in the case of flows. Other FDI capital is the stock of debts (assets or liabilities) between the direct investors and the direct investment enterprise. 3) FDI income is the income accruing to direct investors during the period. FDI income is recorded in the current account of the Balance of Payments. Total FDI income is broken down by kind of income. The categories of FDI income available are linked to the breakdown of FDI flows and stocks by kind of instrument, namely: Dividends Dividends payable in the period and branch profits remitted to the direct investor, gross of any withholding taxes. Dividends include payments due on common and preferred shares. Reinvested earnings See definition under FDI flows. Interest on loans Interest accrued in the period on loans (other FDI capital) with affiliated enterprises, gross of any withholding tax. 4) FDI intensity Out of FDI annual data, an indicator useful to measure EU market integration is also calculated and disseminated in the domain Structural Indicators: FDI intensity as % of GDP: Average of inward and outward FDI flows divided by GDP. A higher index indicates higher new FDI during the period in relation to the size of the economy as measured by GDP. If this index increases over time, then the country/zone is becoming more integrated with the international economy.

STAT_UNIT Foreign direct investor A direct investor is an individual, an incorporated or unincorporated public or private enterprise, a government, a group of related individuals, or a group of related incorporated and/or unincorporated enterprises which have a direct investment enterprise operating in a country other than the country or countries of residence of the direct investor or investors. Direct investment enterprise A direct investment enterprise is an enterprise in which a foreign investor owns 10% or more of voting power or has an effective voice in the management of the enterprise. Some countries may feel it necessary to treat the 10% limit with flexibility to fit circumstances. A direct investment enterprise may be an incorporated enterprise - a subsidiary or associate company - or an unincorporated enterprise (branch): Subsidiary: ownership > 50% or control. A subsidiary is an incorporated enterprise in which: i) the foreign investor controls directly or indirectly (through another subsidiary) more than 50% of the shareholders' voting power, or ii) the foreign investor has anyway control over the enterprise, i.e. the right to appoint or remove a majority of the members of this enterprise's administrative, management or supervisory body. Associate: ownership between 10% and 50% and no control on enterprise. Branch: wholly or jointly owned unincorporated enterprise. For example, a permanent establishment or office abroad of a foreign direct investor; or mobile equipment operating within an economy for at least one year if accounted for separately by the operator (e.g. ships, aircraft, gas and oil drilling rigs); but also: land, structures and immovable equipment and objects directly owned by a foreign resident (e.g. holiday and second homes). Indirect participation in direct investment enterprises Statistics based on the definitions given above should cover all enterprises in which the direct investor has directly or indirectly a direct investment interest (Framework of Direct Investment Relationships). In particular, this mainly means that: a) reinvested earnings (flows, income) and the corresponding reserves (stocks) of indirectly participated enterprises should be included in FDI statistics in proportion to the indirect percent of equity held by the direct investor. The indirect percent of equity is obtained by multiplying the direct percent of equity held at each step of the chain linking the direct investor and the direct investment enterprise; b) direct investment flows, income and stocks within a group of enterprises should be included in FDI statistics without consideration of the percent of equity directly held by these enterprises in each other. For more detail, see the OECD Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment Third Edition.

STAT_POP The statistical population is composedáof all direct investors (for outward FDI) and by all direct investment enterprises (for inward FDI).

REF_AREA For the most recent years all FDI data for the EU Member States, EU-15, EU-25, EU-27, Euro area, the United States and Japan, EFTA countries (except Liechtenstein) and Candidate Countries (Croatia and Turkey) are provided. For less recent years data availability varies across Member States.

BASE_PER N/A

UNIT_MEASURE Data are in millions of Euro/ECU.

    • Currency
      • 0 Million euro
    • Item of the balance of payments
      • 0 Financial account, Direct investment, Abroad
      • 1 Financial account, Direct investment, Abroad, Equity capital
      • 2 Financial account, Direct investment, Abroad, Reinvested earnings
      • 3 Financial account, Direct investment, Abroad, Other capital
      • 4 Financial account, Direct investment, In the reporting economy
      • 5 Financial account, Direct investment, In the reporting economy, Equity capital
      • 6 Financial account, Direct investment, In the reporting economy, Reinvested earnings
      • 7 Financial account, Direct investment, In the reporting economy, Other capital
    • Stock or flow
      • 0 Net
    • Classification of economic activities - NACE Rev.2
      • 00 Total - all NACE activities
      • 01 Agriculture, forestry and fishing
      • 02 Mining and quarrying
      • 03 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas; mining support service activities
      • 04 Manufacturing
      • 05 Manufacture of food products; beverages and tobacco products
      • 06 Manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel, wood and paper products; printing and reproduction
      • 07 Manufacture of textiles and wearing apparel
      • 08 Manufacture of wood, paper, printing and reproduction
      • 09 Manufacture of petroleum, chemical, pharmaceutical, rubber and plastic products
      • 0a Manufacture of coke and refined petroleum products
      • 0b Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products
      • 0c Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations
      • 0d Manufacture of rubber and plastic products
      • 0e Manufacture of metal and machinery products, except electrical equipment
      • 0f Manufacture of basic metals and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
      • 0g Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products
      • 0h Manufacture of computers and peripheral equipment
      • 0i Manufacture of communication equipment and consumer electronics
      • 0j Manufacture of instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation; watches and clocks; manufacture of irradiation, electromedical and electrotherapeutic equipment
      • 0k Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c.
      • 0l Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers, semi-trailers and of other transport equipment
      • 0m Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers
      • 0n Manufacture of other transport equipment
      • 0o Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery
      • 0p Other manufacturing (C15, C23, C27, C31, C32, C33)
      • 0q Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply
      • 0r Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities
      • 0s Water collection, treatment and supply
      • 0t Sewerage, waste management, remediation activities
      • 0u Construction
      • 0v Services
      • 0w Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles
      • 0x Wholesale and retail trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles
      • 0y Wholesale trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles
      • 0z Retail trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles
      • 10 Transportation and storage
      • 11 Transportation and storage except postal and courier activities
      • 12 Land transport and transport via pipelines
      • 13 Water transport
      • 14 Air transport
      • 15 Warehousing and support activities for transportation
      • 16 Postal and courier activities
      • 17 Accommodation and food service activities
      • 18 Information and communication
      • 19 Publishing, computer programming and consultancy, information service activities
      • 1a Motion picture, video, television programme production; programming and broadcasting activities
      • 1b Telecommunications
      • 1c Financial and insurance activities
      • 1d Financial service activities, except insurance and pension funding
      • 1e Activities of holding companies
      • 1f Insurance, reinsurance and pension funding, except compulsory social security
      • 1g Activities auxiliary to financial services and insurance activities
      • 1h Real estate activities
      • 1i Professional, scientific and technical activities
      • 1j Legal and accounting activities
      • 1k Legal activities
      • 1l Accounting, bookkeeping and auditing activities; tax consultancy
      • 1m Activities of head offices; management consultancy activities
      • 1n Activities of head offices
      • 1o Management consultancy activities
      • 1p Architectural and engineering activities; technical testing and analysis
      • 1q Scientific research and development
      • 1r Advertising and market research
      • 1s Advertising
      • 1t Market research and public opinion polling
      • 1u Other professional, scientific and technical activities; veterinary activities
      • 1v Administrative and support service activities
      • 1w Rental and leasing activities
      • 1x Employment, travel agency, security and investigation, service and landscape, office administrative and support activities
      • 1y Travel agency, tour operator and other reservation service and related activities
      • 1z Public administration; activities of households and of extraterritorial organisations
      • 20 Education
      • 21 Human health and social work activities
      • 22 Arts, entertainment and recreation
      • 23 Creative, arts and entertainment activities
      • 24 Libraries, archives, museums and other cultural activities
      • 25 Gambling and betting activities; sporting and other recreational activities
      • 26 Other service activities
      • 27 Activities of membership organisations
      • 28 Repair of computers, personal and household goods; other personal service activities
      • 29 Private real estate activities
      • 2a All FDI activities
      • 2b Not allocated
    • Geopolitical entity (partner)
      • 00 Europe
      • 01 European Union - 28 countries (2013-2020)
      • 02 European Union - 27 countries (2007-2013)
      • 03 European Union - 25 countries (2004-2006)
      • 04 European Union - 15 countries (1995-2004)
      • 05 New Member States - 12 countries (2007-2013)
      • 06 New Member States - 10 countries (2004-2006)
      • 07 Euro area - 17 countries (2011-2013)
      • 08 Euro area - 16 countries (2009-2010)
      • 09 Euro area - 15 countries (2008)
      • 0a Euro area - 13 countries (2007)
      • 0b Euro area - 12 countries (2001-2006)
      • 0c Euro area - 11 countries (1999-2000)
      • 0d Belgium
      • 0e Bulgaria
      • 0f Czechia
      • 0g Denmark
      • 0h Germany (until 1990 former territory of the FRG)
      • 0i Estonia
      • 0j Ireland
      • 0k Greece
      • 0l Spain
      • 0m France
      • 0n Croatia
      • 0o Italy
      • 0p Cyprus
      • 0q Latvia
      • 0r Lithuania
      • 0s Luxembourg
      • 0t Hungary
      • 0u Malta
      • 0v Netherlands
      • 0w Austria
      • 0x Poland
      • 0y Portugal
      • 0z Romania
      • 10 Slovenia
      • 11 Slovakia
      • 12 Finland
      • 13 Sweden
      • 14 Baltic countries
      • 15 European Free Trade Association
      • 16 Iceland
      • 17 Liechtenstein
      • 18 Norway
      • 19 Switzerland
      • 1a United Kingdom
      • 1b Candidate countries in 2013 (5 countries)
      • 1c Candidate countries in 2010 (5 countries)
      • 1d Candidate countries in 2010 (4 countries)
      • 1e Candidate countries in 2007 (3 countries)
      • 1f Montenegro
      • 1g North Macedonia
      • 1h Albania
      • 1i Serbia
      • 1j Turkey
      • 1k Central and Eastern Europe
      • 1l Andorra
      • 1m Belarus
      • 1n Bosnia and Herzegovina
      • 1o Faroes (DK)
      • 1p Gibraltar (UK)
      • 1q Guernsey
      • 1r Isle of Man
      • 1s Jersey
      • 1t Moldova
      • 1u Russia
      • 1v San Marino
      • 1w Ukraine
      • 1x Vatican City State
      • 1y Former Serbia and Montenegro (before 2006)/Total components of the former Serbia and Montenegro
      • 1z Commonwealth of Independent States (Former Soviet Union except BAL)
      • 20 Extra-EU28 (2013-2020)
      • 21 Extra-EU27 (2007-2013)
      • 22 Extra-EU25 (2004-2006)
      • 23 Extra-EU15 (1995-2004)
      • 24 Extra-euro area - 17 countries (2011-2013)
      • 25 Extra-euro area - 16 countries (2009-2010)
      • 26 Extra-euro area - 15 countries (2008))
      • 27 Extra-euro area - 13 countries (2007)
      • 28 Extra-euro area - 12 countries (2001-2006)
      • 29 Extra-euro area - 11 countries (1999-2000)
      • 2a European countries not EU nor EFTA (aggregate changing according to the context)
      • 2b Africa
      • 2c Central and South Africa
      • 2d Angola
      • 2e Cameroon
      • 2f Central African Republic
      • 2g Chad
      • 2h Congo
      • 2i Democratic Republic of the Congo
      • 2j Equatorial Guinea
      • 2k Gabon
      • 2l São Tomé and Príncipe
      • 2m Burundi
      • 2n Comoros
      • 2o Djibouti
      • 2p Eritrea
      • 2q Ethiopia
      • 2r Kenya
      • 2s Madagascar
      • 2t Malawi
      • 2u Mauritius
      • 2v Mozambique
      • 2w Rwanda
      • 2x Seychelles
      • 2y Somalia
      • 2z Uganda
      • 30 Tanzania
      • 31 Zambia
      • 32 Zimbabwe
      • 33 Northern Africa
      • 34 Algeria
      • 35 Egypt
      • 36 Libya
      • 37 Morocco
      • 38 South Sudan
      • 39 Sudan
      • 3a Tunisia
      • 3b Botswana
      • 3c Lesotho
      • 3d Namibia
      • 3e South Africa
      • 3f Eswatini
      • 3g Benin
      • 3h Burkina Faso
      • 3i Cabo Verde
      • 3j Côte d'Ivoire
      • 3k Gambia, The
      • 3l Ghana
      • 3m Guinea
      • 3n Guinea-Bissau
      • 3o Liberia
      • 3p Mali
      • 3q Mauritania
      • 3r Niger
      • 3s Nigeria
      • 3t Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (UK)
      • 3u Senegal
      • 3v Sierra Leone
      • 3w Togo
      • 3x America
      • 3y Northern America
      • 3z Bermuda (UK)
      • 40 Canada
      • 41 Greenland (DK)
      • 42 United States
      • 43 Anguilla (UK)
      • 44 Antigua and Barbuda
      • 45 Aruba (NL)
      • 46 Bahamas
      • 47 Barbados
      • 48 Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
      • 49 British Virgin Islands (UK)
      • 4a Cayman Islands (UK)
      • 4b Cuba
      • 4c Curaçao
      • 4d Dominica
      • 4e Dominican Republic
      • 4f Grenada
      • 4g Haiti
      • 4h Jamaica
      • 4i Montserrat (UK)
      • 4j Former Netherlands Antilles
      • 4k Puerto Rico (US)
      • 4l Saint Kitts and Nevis
      • 4m Saint Lucia
      • 4n Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
      • 4o Sint Maarten
      • 4p Trinidad and Tobago
      • 4q Turks and Caicos Islands (UK)
      • 4r US Virgin Islands (US)
      • 4s Latin American countries
      • 4t Central America
      • 4u Belize
      • 4v Costa Rica
      • 4w El Salvador
      • 4x Guatemala
      • 4y Honduras
      • 4z Mexico
      • 50 Nicaragua
      • 51 Panama
      • 52 South America
      • 53 Argentina
      • 54 Bolivia
      • 55 Brazil
      • 56 Chile
      • 57 Colombia
      • 58 Ecuador
      • 59 Falkland Islands (UK)
      • 5a Guyana
      • 5b Paraguay
      • 5c Peru
      • 5d Suriname
      • 5e Uruguay
      • 5f Venezuela
      • 5g Asia
      • 5h Kazakhstan
      • 5i Kyrgyzstan
      • 5j Tajikistan
      • 5k Turkmenistan
      • 5l Uzbekistan
      • 5m China except Hong Kong
      • 5n Hong Kong
      • 5o Macao
      • 5p Japan
      • 5q Mongolia
      • 5r North Korea
      • 5s South Korea
      • 5t Taiwan
      • 5u Afghanistan
      • 5v Bangladesh
      • 5w Bhutan
      • 5x British Indian Ocean Territory (UK)
      • 5y India
      • 5z Iran
      • 60 Maldives
      • 61 Nepal
      • 62 Pakistan
      • 63 Sri Lanka
      • 64 Brunei Darussalam
      • 65 Cambodia
      • 66 Indonesia
      • 67 Laos
      • 68 Malaysia
      • 69 Myanmar/Burma
      • 6a Philippines
      • 6b Singapore
      • 6c Thailand
      • 6d Timor-Leste
      • 6e Vietnam
      • 6f Western Asia including Iran
      • 6g Armenia
      • 6h Azerbaijan
      • 6i Bahrain
      • 6j Georgia
      • 6k Iraq
      • 6l Israel
      • 6m Jordan
      • 6n Kuwait
      • 6o Lebanon
      • 6p Palestine
      • 6q Oman
      • 6r Qatar
      • 6s Saudi Arabia
      • 6t Syria
      • 6u United Arab Emirates
      • 6v Yemen
      • 6w Gulf Arabian Countries
      • 6x Other Western Asian countries
      • 6y Other Asian countries (aggregate changing according to the context)
      • 6z Oceania and southern polar regions
      • 70 Australia
      • 71 Australian Oceania
      • 72 Christmas Island (AU)
      • 73 Cocos (Keeling) Islands (AU)
      • 74 Heard Island and McDonald Islands (AU)
      • 75 Norfolk Island (AU)
      • 76 New Zealand
      • 77 New Zealand Oceania
      • 78 Fiji
      • 79 New Caledonia (FR)
      • 7a Papua New Guinea
      • 7b Solomon Islands
      • 7c Vanuatu
      • 7d Guam (US)
      • 7e Kiribati
      • 7f Marshall Islands
      • 7g Federated States of Micronesia
      • 7h Nauru
      • 7i Northern Mariana Islands (US)
      • 7j Palau
      • 7k American Samoa (US)
      • 7l Cook Islands (NZ)
      • 7m French Polynesia (FR)
      • 7n Niue (NZ)
      • 7o Pitcairn Islands (UK)
      • 7p Samoa
      • 7q Tokelau (NZ)
      • 7r Tonga
      • 7s Tuvalu
      • 7t Wallis and Futuna (FR)
      • 7u American Oceania (US)
      • 7v United States Minor Outlying Islands (US)
      • 7w Southern polar regions
      • 7x Antarctica
      • 7y Bouvet Island (NO)
      • 7z South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (UK)
      • 80 French Southern Territories (FR)
      • 81 Institutions and bodies of the European Union
      • 82 European Central Bank (ECB)
      • 83 European Stability Mechanism
      • 84 African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States, signatories of the Partnership Agreement
      • 85 African ACP states
      • 86 Caribbean ACP states
      • 87 Pacific ACP states
      • 88 Association of Southeast Asian Nations
      • 89 Mediterranean countries in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
      • 8a Franc Zone
      • 8b Mashrek
      • 8c Maghreb
      • 8d Southern Common Market
      • 8e North American Free Trade Agreement
      • 8f Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
      • 8g Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
      • 8h Non European International Organizations
      • 8i Core Newly Industrializing Countries
      • 8j Asian NICs of the second wave of industrialization
      • 8k Latin American NICs of the second wave of industrialization
      • 8l Offshore financial centers
      • 8m All countries of the world
    • Geopolitical entity (reporting)
      • 00 European Union - 28 countries (2013-2020)
      • 01 European Union - 27 countries (2007-2013)
      • 02 European Union - 25 countries (2004-2006)
      • 03 European Union - 15 countries (1995-2004)
      • 04 Euro area - 17 countries (2011-2013)
      • 05 Euro area - 16 countries (2009-2010)
      • 06 Euro area - 15 countries (2008)
      • 07 Belgium
      • 08 Bulgaria
      • 09 Czechia
      • 0a Denmark
      • 0b Germany (until 1990 former territory of the FRG)
      • 0c Estonia
      • 0d Ireland
      • 0e Greece
      • 0f Spain
      • 0g France
      • 0h Croatia
      • 0i Italy
      • 0j Cyprus
      • 0k Latvia
      • 0l Lithuania
      • 0m Luxembourg
      • 0n Hungary
      • 0o Malta
      • 0p Netherlands
      • 0q Austria
      • 0r Poland
      • 0s Portugal
      • 0t Romania
      • 0u Slovenia
      • 0v Slovakia
      • 0w Finland
      • 0x Sweden
      • 0y Iceland
      • 0z Norway
      • 10 Switzerland
      • 11 United Kingdom
      • 12 Montenegro
      • 13 North Macedonia
      • 14 Turkey
      • 15 United States
      • 16 Japan