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Agriculture

Agricultural statistics

Agricultural statistics were initially designed to monitor the main objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy, e.g. the production and supply of agricultural products and income in the agricultural sector. Today, agricultural statistics cover topics as diverse as

* farm structure,  
* utilisation of farming land,  
* labour input,  
* production,  
* supply/use,  
* prices and the  
* composition of agricultural income.  

Comprehensive information is available at both a national level and a regional level.

During the last 10-15 years new objectives have been introduced in relation to agricultural policy. These include

* protection of the environment,  
* sustainable farming practices,  
* food safety and security, and  
* animal welfare,as well as  
* broader perspectives relating to rural development.   

New indicators and statistics have been developed to provide information relating to these topics, for example, data relating to the use and impact of pesticides and nutrients. Another important priority in agricultural statistics has been to establish statistics that allow the evolution of organic farming to be followed.

Data

Economic accounts for agriculture

The agricultural accounts, a satellite to National Accounts, show detailed results of the income generated by agricultural activities over a given accounting period. Values for output, input, subsidies and taxes are available in current and constant prices. Furthermore, indices for the developments are shown. A main indicator is the real net value added at factor cost (Factor income) of agriculture per total annual work unit. Data are published in December (1st estimate for the year n), March (2nd estimate for the year n-1) and October (final data for the year n-1)

Structure of agricultural holdings

This summarises the main data in the Eurofarm database and contains the results of Community surveys on the structure of agricultural holdings, i.e. labour force, size of holdings, land use, livestock, subsistence farming. This domain also contains the main indicators on the structure of agricultural holdings by region.

Agricultural prices and price indices (EU and candidate countries)

This domain contains quarterly and annual data on agricultural price indices (2005=100) and annual data on absolute prices and agricultural land prices and rents. The agricultural price statistics provide information on the development of producer prices of agricultural products (output) as well as of the purchase prices (input) of the goods and services consumed by agriculture in the production process. Price indices data are available for single commodities and for larger aggregates at the country and EU level.

Agricultural products

This domain includes data shown in physical units (number, weight, quantity):

* land use, annual data;  
* livestock (number and structure), annual data;  
* crop production (area, yield, production), annual data;  
* meat, milk and milk products production and activity of hatcheries (incubation and trade), monthly and annual data; summary data (balance sheets), annual data.  

The countries concerned are the EU-27, candidate countries (Turkey) and other countries (Albania, countries from the former Yugoslavia, Norway).

Orchards survey

This domain contains data on the plantations of seven species of fruit trees: dessert apples, dessert pears, peaches, apricots, oranges, lemons and small-fruited citrus fruits; certain information is also available on cooking apples and cooking pears. The results referring to the characteristics of these species are: age classes, density and varieties, which are recorded per country and production zone.

Vineyard survey

This database contains the results of surveys of areas under vines (basic, every 10 years, and intermediate, annually) carried out by Member States with at least 500 ha under vines in the open air (Germany, Greece, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Spain, Austria and the United Kingdom) in accordance with Council Regulation (EEC) No 357/79 of February 1979. The aim is to assess the situation and developments in the grape-growing sector in the European Union.

Organic farming

‘Organic farming’ can be defined as a method of production which places the highest emphasis on environmental protection and, with regard to livestock production, animal welfare considerations. It avoids or largely reduces the use of synthetic chemical units such as fertilisers, pesticides, additives and medicinal products. It has to be understood as a part of a sustainable farming system and a viable alternative to the more traditional approaches to agriculture.

The database contains a set of summary tables intended to provide an overview of the situation regarding organic farming within the European Economic Area. It includes the number of certified operators (producers, transformers and importers), fully converted and under conversion organic agricultural area and organic livestock. The statistical information contained in the database refers only to organic farming practices that comply with EU legislation.

Regional Agriculture statistics

For the regional level, data are available for economic accounts, land use, animal population, crop production and milk production. The information may be less detailed than the figures for the whole country.

Farm structure

What is available

The Farm structure statistics provide harmonised data on agricultural holdings in the EU, including:

* Number of agricultural holdings  
* Land use and area (crops)  
* Livestock  
* Main crops  
* Farm Labour Force (including age, gender and relationship to the holder)   
* Economic size of the holdings  
* Type of activity  
* Other gainful activity on the farm  
* System of farming  
* Machinery  
* Organic farming   
Uses of the data

The purpose of the Farm structure surveys is to obtain reliable data, at regular intervals, on the structure of agricultural holdings in the European Union in order to:

* Assess the agricultural situation across the EU  
* Monitor trends and transitions in the structure of European farms (agricultural holdings)  
* Manage, evaluate and design the Common Agricultural Policy in its environmental, economical and social aspects.   

FSS data is also used in other policy areas such as environment, regional development and climate change.

Frequency of the surveys
* Every ten years, a full scope survey is carried out in the form of an agricultural census.  
* The Agricultural Census 2010 took place in EU Member States. The data are currently under validation process and the first validated results are published in the database. Provisional results for all countries are available in Statistics Explained: Agricultural census 2010 - provisional results  
* Every 2 or 3 years, between the censuses, sample surveys are carried out. 

The last sample survey was carried out in 2007. See results in the database.

Ad-hoc tables

Ad-hoc tables

Ad-hoc tables can be built for special requests.

Example: agricultural holders by age in the specialist dairying farms

Indeed, not all the information available is online:

* The survey collects 1 record per farm;  
* For each record there is over 200 variables collected; 

from all this information a bit less than 100 tables were designed and are available online in the database.

List of characteristics

See Annex III of Regulation 1166/2008 on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods

Historical results

Farm structure - Historical results - Surveys from 1966/67 to 1997 (PDF)

"This publication is intended to give the reader a picture of changes in the structure of agricultural holdings, in terms of land use, livestock, the labour force and types of farming."

Agricultural production

What is available

Agricultural production data refers to vegetable and animal production that is made available for human consumption and animal feed.

Crop production data include:

* cereals   
* main crops (dried pulses and protein crops, root crops, industrial crops, plants harvested green)  
* vegetables, melons and strawberries  
* permanent crops (fruits, olive trees and vineyards)  
* agricultural land use for utilised agricultural area (arable land, permanent crops, permanent grassland, …)   

and refer to:

* areas under cultivation (cereals and main crops), (expressed in 1 000 hectares),  
* harvested areas (vegetables), (expressed in 1 000 hectares),  
* production area (permanent crops) (expressed in 1 000 hectares),  
* harversted production (expressed in 1 000 tonnes) and  
* yield per hectare (expressed in 100 kg/hectare)   

Animal production data cover:

* bovine animals  
* sheep  
* goats   
* pigs  
* poultry  

And refer to:

* livestock (expressed in number of animals)  
* slaughtering (expressed in number of animals and tonnes)  
* milk and dairy production (quantities produced and used on farm and in dairies)  
* production of eggs for hatching  
* trade of chicks   
Uses of the data

Agricultural production data are used to define policy measures as diverse as:

* Analysing developments in agricultural markets and how they respond to policy actions;  
* Ensuring quality in food and animal feed  
* Promotion of farm products  
* Ensuring animal welfare and health  
* Actions in case of serious animal diseases or human health risk due to agricultural products.  

This data reflects the large diversity of agricultural products that are made available for consumption. Agricultural products are an important part of the cultural identity of European citizens and regions.

Agricultural production data can answer questions such as:
* What are the main crops harvested in the European Union?  
* How much milk is produced for consumption?   
* How is evolving the meat production from different cattle categories?  
* What is the share of cereal production between the Member States?  
* How is the agricultural land used in the Member States?  
* What are the shares of arable land and permanent crops?  
* Which European regions produce the goat and ewe milk?  

Methodology

Structure of agricultural holdings
* [Structure of agricultural holdings - metadata][3]  
* [National methodological reports][4] 
Economic Accounts for Agriculture
* [Economic Accounts for Agriculture - metadata][5]
Agricultural prices and price indices
* [Selling prices of agricultural products (absolute prices), land prices and rents][6]  
* [Price indices of agricultural products][7] 
Agricultural production
* [Agricultural production data - Methodological notes][8]  
* [Crops products: areas and productions][9]  
* [Crops products: supply balances sheets][10]  
* [Livestock and meat][11] 
Structure of orchards and vineyards
* [Orchard][12]  
* [Vineyard ][13]

Legislation

The following list presents the main legal acts relating to agricultural statistics. For more information, please consult EUR-Lex.

Farm Structure

Up to FSS 2007 (consolidated texts)

* [Council Regulation (EEC) No 571/88 of 29 February 1988 on the organization of Community surveys on the structure of agricultural holdings][14]  
* [Commission Decision (EC) No 115/2000 of 24 November 1999 relating to the definitions of the characteristics, the list of agricultural products, the exceptions to the definitions and the regions and districts regarding the surveys on the structure of agricultural holdings][15]  
* [Commission Decision of 7 June 1985 establishing a Community typology for agricultural holdings (85/377/EEC)][16]  

FSS 2010 onwards

* [Commission Regulation (EC) No 1200/2009 of 30 November 2009 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods, as regards livestock unit coefficients and definitions of the characteristics][17]  
* [Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 571/88][18]  
* [Commission Regulation (EC) No 1242/2008 of 8 December 2008 establishing a Community typology for agricultural holdings][19]   
Economic accounts for agriculture
* [Regulation (EC) No 138/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 December 2003 on the economic accounts for agriculture in the Community][20] 
Cereals and other crop products
* [Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council (EC) No 543/2009 of 29 June 2009 concerning crop statistics and repealing Council Regulations (EEC) 837/90 and (EEC) 959/93][21] 
Poultry farming
* [Commission Regulation (EC) No. 617/2008 of 27 June 2008 laying down detailed rules for implementing Regulation (EC) No. 1234/2007 as regards marketing standards for eggs for hatching and farmyard poultry chicks][22] 
Milk and milk products
* [Council Directive No 96/16/EC of 19 March 1996 on statistical surveys of milk and milk products][23]  
* [Commission Decision No 97/80/EC of 18 December 1996 laying down provisions for the implementation of Council Directive No 96/16/EC on statistical surveys of milk and milk products ][24]
Animal production
* [Regulation (EC) No 1165/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 concerning livestock and meat statistics and repealing Council Directives 93/23/EEC, 93/24/EEC and 93/25/EEC ][25]
Wine market
* [Commission Regulation (EC) No 1282/2001 of 28 June 2001 laying down detailed rules for the application of Council Regulation (EC) No 1493/1999 as regards the gathering of information to identify wine products and to monitor the wine market and amending Regulation (EC) No 1623/2000 ][26]

DATA_DESCR The survey results cover livestock of the bovine, porcine, ovine, and caprine species, broken down into animal categories by age or weight and certain uses. Once a year (November/December survey) relevant livestock statistics are broken down by territorial units defined by EU legislation (NUTS 2 level).

CLASS_SYSTEM According to Regulation (EC) No 1165/2008 on livestock and meat statistics, the results must cover the following categories of animals:   For cattle: A       Bovine animals aged not over than 1 year: a)      calves and young cattle for slaughter; b)      other: ba     male; bb    female; B       Bovine animals aged over 1 year but under 2 years (except females that calved): a)      male; b)      female (heifers; animals that have not yet calved); ba     animals for slaughter; bb    other; C       Bovine animals of 2 years and over: a)      male; b)      female: ba     heifers; 1.      heifers for slaughter; 2.      other; bb    cows (include bovines under 2 years old that have calved): 1.      dairy cows; 2.      other; D       Buffaloes: a)      female breeding buffaloes; b)      other buffaloes.   For pigs: A       Piglets with a live weight of less than 20 kg; B       Pigs with a live weight of 20 kg or more but less than 50 kg; C       Fattening pigs, including cull boars and cull sows with a live weight: a)      of 50 kg or more but less than 80 kg; b)      of 80 kg or more but less than 110 kg; c)      of 110 kg or more; D       Breeding pigs with a live weight of 50 kg and higher; a)      boars; b)      covered sows, of which: b1    sows covered for the first time; c)      other sows, of which: c1     gilts not yet covered;   For sheep and goats: Sheep A   ewes and ewe lambs put to the ram: a)         milk ewes and milk ewe lambs put to the ram; b)         other ewes and ewe lambs put to the ram; B    other sheep.   Goats A   goats which have already kidded and goats mated: a)         goats which have already kidded; b)         goats mated for the first time; B   other goats.   The regions used to show the breakdown of livestock numbers are defined in the Territorial Statistical Units Nomenclature (NUTS), as per European Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003.

STAT_CONC_DEF Most Member States use statistical surveys to establish their cattle, pig, sheep and goat livestock numbers. However, the use of administrative sources is also allowed. There is no legal obligation to produce livestock statistics for poultry, horses, donkeys, mules or other animals. However, for poultry, some estimates are produced on the basis of (i) the number of eggs incubated, (ii) trade in day-old chicks and (iii) chicks are placed. It is difficult to establish estimates of livestock numbers for equidae because this category is not strictly agricultural, as horses are not always raised specifically for meat production. It is therefore difficult to devise a suitable sample design. All indicators are expressed in numbers of heads. Cattle: Domestic animals of the species Bos taurus, Bubalus bubalis, including hybrids like Beefalo. Calves and young cattle for slaughter: Bovine animals aged not over 1 year old for slaughter. Heifers: Female bovines that have not yet calved and which are not included under calves and young cattle. Heifers for slaughter: Heifers raised for meat production. Other heifers: Heifers raised for breeding and intended to replace dairy or other cows. Cows: Female bovines that have calved (including any aged less than two years). Dairy cows: Cows kept exclusively or principally for the production of milk for human consumption and/or dairy produce, including cows for slaughter (fattened or not between last lactation and slaughter). Other cows: Cows other than dairy cows, possibly including any draught cows. Pigs: Domestic animals of the species Sus scrofa domestica. Sheep: Domestic animals of the species Ovis aries. Ewes and ewe lambs put to the ram: females of the ovine species which have already lambed at least once as well as those which have been put to the ram for the first time. Milk ewes: ewes which are kept exclusively or principally to produce milk for human consumption and/or for processing into dairy products. This includes cast milk sheep (whether fattened or not between their last lactation and slaughtering). Other ewes: ewes other than milk ewes. Lambs: male or female sheep under 12 months old. Goats: domestic animals of the species Capra aegagrus hircus.

STAT_UNIT Livestock surveys are carried out on agricultural holdings, in accordance with the following definitions: An 'agricultural holding' means any technical and economic unit under single management which produces agricultural products. A sample survey means statistical surveys based on stratified random sampling which are designed to provide representative statistics. The stratification should ensure that different sizes and types are represented. The survey covers agricultural holdings with a utilised agricultural area of 1 ha or more or agricultural holdings with a utilised agricultural area of less than 1 ha, if their production is to a certain extent intended for sale or if their production unit exceeds certain natural thresholds. Sample surveys must cover sufficient agricultural holdings to account for at least 95% of the entire animal population. Member States conducting sample surveys must ensure precision requirements established by the legislation. If a Member State decides to use administrative soures, the information obtained must be at least of equal quality to surveys.  Results are agreggated at national level and presented in 1000 heads.

STAT_POP Only livestock belonging to agricultural holdings as defined above are surveyed. Some livestock may slip through the survey net, as it is possible that they have not yet been born during one survey and have already been slaughtered by the time of the following survey.

REF_AREA European Union, Member States The survey results are compiled at Member State level. Most Member States use the November/December surveys or another more precise survey to produce results per region at a specific NUTS level.

BASE_PER Data are available since January 1970 depending on the animal species and date of accession to the EU.

UNIT_MEASURE The units of measure are 1000 heads.

    • Live animals
      • 0 Live swine, domestic species
      • 1 Piglets, less than 20 kg
      • 2 Breeding pigs
      • 3 Breeding sows
      • 4 Covered sows
      • 5 Sows covered for the first time
      • 6 Sows, not covered
      • 7 Gilts not yet covered
      • 8 Pigs, from 20 kg to less than 50 kg
      • 9 Fattening pigs, 50 kg or over
      • a Fattening pigs, from 50 kg to less than 80 kg
      • b Fattening pigs, from 80 kg to less than 110 kg
      • c Fattening pigs, 110 kg or over
      • d Breeding boars
    • Month
      • 0 April
      • 1 May-June
      • 2 August
      • 3 December
    • Unit of measure
      • 0 Thousand heads (animals)
    • Geopolitical entity (reporting)
      • 00 European Union - 27 countries (from 2020)
      • 01 European Union - 28 countries (2013-2020)
      • 02 European Union - 27 countries (2007-2013)
      • 03 European Union - 25 countries (2004-2006)
      • 04 European Union - 15 countries (1995-2004)
      • 05 Belgium
      • 06 Bulgaria
      • 07 Czechia
      • 08 Denmark
      • 09 Germany (until 1990 former territory of the FRG)
      • 0a Estonia
      • 0b Ireland
      • 0c Greece
      • 0d Spain
      • 0e France
      • 0f Croatia
      • 0g Italy
      • 0h Cyprus
      • 0i Latvia
      • 0j Lithuania
      • 0k Luxembourg
      • 0l Hungary
      • 0m Malta
      • 0n Netherlands
      • 0o Austria
      • 0p Poland
      • 0q Portugal
      • 0r Romania
      • 0s Slovenia
      • 0t Slovakia
      • 0u Finland
      • 0v Sweden
      • 0w United Kingdom
      • 0x Iceland
      • 0y Switzerland
      • 0z Montenegro
      • 10 North Macedonia
      • 11 Albania
      • 12 Serbia
      • 13 Bosnia and Herzegovina
      • 14 Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)