methods, notes and classification Milk collection (all milks) and dairy products obtained - annual data methods, notes and classification


Agricultural statistics

Agricultural statistics were initially designed to monitor the main objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy, e.g. the production and supply of agricultural products and income in the agricultural sector. Today, agricultural statistics cover topics as diverse as

* farm structure,  
* utilisation of farming land,  
* labour input,  
* production,  
* supply/use,  
* prices and the  
* composition of agricultural income.  

Comprehensive information is available at both a national level and a regional level.

During the last 10-15 years new objectives have been introduced in relation to agricultural policy. These include

* protection of the environment,  
* sustainable farming practices,  
* food safety and security, and  
* animal welfare,as well as  
* broader perspectives relating to rural development.   

New indicators and statistics have been developed to provide information relating to these topics, for example, data relating to the use and impact of pesticides and nutrients. Another important priority in agricultural statistics has been to establish statistics that allow the evolution of organic farming to be followed.


Economic accounts for agriculture

The agricultural accounts, a satellite to National Accounts, show detailed results of the income generated by agricultural activities over a given accounting period. Values for output, input, subsidies and taxes are available in current and constant prices. Furthermore, indices for the developments are shown. A main indicator is the real net value added at factor cost (Factor income) of agriculture per total annual work unit. Data are published in December (1st estimate for the year n), March (2nd estimate for the year n-1) and October (final data for the year n-1)

Structure of agricultural holdings

This summarises the main data in the Eurofarm database and contains the results of Community surveys on the structure of agricultural holdings, i.e. labour force, size of holdings, land use, livestock, subsistence farming. This domain also contains the main indicators on the structure of agricultural holdings by region.

Agricultural prices and price indices (EU and candidate countries)

This domain contains quarterly and annual data on agricultural price indices (2005=100) and annual data on absolute prices and agricultural land prices and rents. The agricultural price statistics provide information on the development of producer prices of agricultural products (output) as well as of the purchase prices (input) of the goods and services consumed by agriculture in the production process. Price indices data are available for single commodities and for larger aggregates at the country and EU level.

Agricultural products

This domain includes data shown in physical units (number, weight, quantity):

* land use, annual data;  
* livestock (number and structure), annual data;  
* crop production (area, yield, production), annual data;  
* meat, milk and milk products production and activity of hatcheries (incubation and trade), monthly and annual data; summary data (balance sheets), annual data.  

The countries concerned are the EU-27, candidate countries (Turkey) and other countries (Albania, countries from the former Yugoslavia, Norway).

Orchards survey

This domain contains data on the plantations of seven species of fruit trees: dessert apples, dessert pears, peaches, apricots, oranges, lemons and small-fruited citrus fruits; certain information is also available on cooking apples and cooking pears. The results referring to the characteristics of these species are: age classes, density and varieties, which are recorded per country and production zone.

Vineyard survey

This database contains the results of surveys of areas under vines (basic, every 10 years, and intermediate, annually) carried out by Member States with at least 500 ha under vines in the open air (Germany, Greece, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Spain, Austria and the United Kingdom) in accordance with Council Regulation (EEC) No 357/79 of February 1979. The aim is to assess the situation and developments in the grape-growing sector in the European Union.

Organic farming

‘Organic farming’ can be defined as a method of production which places the highest emphasis on environmental protection and, with regard to livestock production, animal welfare considerations. It avoids or largely reduces the use of synthetic chemical units such as fertilisers, pesticides, additives and medicinal products. It has to be understood as a part of a sustainable farming system and a viable alternative to the more traditional approaches to agriculture.

The database contains a set of summary tables intended to provide an overview of the situation regarding organic farming within the European Economic Area. It includes the number of certified operators (producers, transformers and importers), fully converted and under conversion organic agricultural area and organic livestock. The statistical information contained in the database refers only to organic farming practices that comply with EU legislation.

Regional Agriculture statistics

For the regional level, data are available for economic accounts, land use, animal population, crop production and milk production. The information may be less detailed than the figures for the whole country.

Farm structure

What is available

The Farm structure statistics provide harmonised data on agricultural holdings in the EU, including:

* Number of agricultural holdings  
* Land use and area (crops)  
* Livestock  
* Main crops  
* Farm Labour Force (including age, gender and relationship to the holder)   
* Economic size of the holdings  
* Type of activity  
* Other gainful activity on the farm  
* System of farming  
* Machinery  
* Organic farming   
Uses of the data

The purpose of the Farm structure surveys is to obtain reliable data, at regular intervals, on the structure of agricultural holdings in the European Union in order to:

* Assess the agricultural situation across the EU  
* Monitor trends and transitions in the structure of European farms (agricultural holdings)  
* Manage, evaluate and design the Common Agricultural Policy in its environmental, economical and social aspects.   

FSS data is also used in other policy areas such as environment, regional development and climate change.

Frequency of the surveys
* Every ten years, a full scope survey is carried out in the form of an agricultural census.  
* The Agricultural Census 2010 took place in EU Member States. The data are currently under validation process and the first validated results are published in the database. Provisional results for all countries are available in Statistics Explained: Agricultural census 2010 - provisional results  
* Every 2 or 3 years, between the censuses, sample surveys are carried out. 

The last sample survey was carried out in 2007. See results in the database.

Ad-hoc tables

Ad-hoc tables

Ad-hoc tables can be built for special requests.

Example: agricultural holders by age in the specialist dairying farms

Indeed, not all the information available is online:

* The survey collects 1 record per farm;  
* For each record there is over 200 variables collected; 

from all this information a bit less than 100 tables were designed and are available online in the database.

List of characteristics

See Annex III of Regulation 1166/2008 on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods

Historical results

Farm structure - Historical results - Surveys from 1966/67 to 1997 (PDF)

"This publication is intended to give the reader a picture of changes in the structure of agricultural holdings, in terms of land use, livestock, the labour force and types of farming."

Agricultural production

What is available

Agricultural production data refers to vegetable and animal production that is made available for human consumption and animal feed.

Crop production data include:

* cereals   
* main crops (dried pulses and protein crops, root crops, industrial crops, plants harvested green)  
* vegetables, melons and strawberries  
* permanent crops (fruits, olive trees and vineyards)  
* agricultural land use for utilised agricultural area (arable land, permanent crops, permanent grassland, …)   

and refer to:

* areas under cultivation (cereals and main crops), (expressed in 1 000 hectares),  
* harvested areas (vegetables), (expressed in 1 000 hectares),  
* production area (permanent crops) (expressed in 1 000 hectares),  
* harversted production (expressed in 1 000 tonnes) and  
* yield per hectare (expressed in 100 kg/hectare)   

Animal production data cover:

* bovine animals  
* sheep  
* goats   
* pigs  
* poultry  

And refer to:

* livestock (expressed in number of animals)  
* slaughtering (expressed in number of animals and tonnes)  
* milk and dairy production (quantities produced and used on farm and in dairies)  
* production of eggs for hatching  
* trade of chicks   
Uses of the data

Agricultural production data are used to define policy measures as diverse as:

* Analysing developments in agricultural markets and how they respond to policy actions;  
* Ensuring quality in food and animal feed  
* Promotion of farm products  
* Ensuring animal welfare and health  
* Actions in case of serious animal diseases or human health risk due to agricultural products.  

This data reflects the large diversity of agricultural products that are made available for consumption. Agricultural products are an important part of the cultural identity of European citizens and regions.

Agricultural production data can answer questions such as:
* What are the main crops harvested in the European Union?  
* How much milk is produced for consumption?   
* How is evolving the meat production from different cattle categories?  
* What is the share of cereal production between the Member States?  
* How is the agricultural land used in the Member States?  
* What are the shares of arable land and permanent crops?  
* Which European regions produce the goat and ewe milk?  


Structure of agricultural holdings
* [Structure of agricultural holdings - metadata][3]  
* [National methodological reports][4] 
Economic Accounts for Agriculture
* [Economic Accounts for Agriculture - metadata][5]
Agricultural prices and price indices
* [Selling prices of agricultural products (absolute prices), land prices and rents][6]  
* [Price indices of agricultural products][7] 
Agricultural production
* [Agricultural production data - Methodological notes][8]  
* [Crops products: areas and productions][9]  
* [Crops products: supply balances sheets][10]  
* [Livestock and meat][11] 
Structure of orchards and vineyards
* [Orchard][12]  
* [Vineyard ][13]


The following list presents the main legal acts relating to agricultural statistics. For more information, please consult EUR-Lex.

Farm Structure

Up to FSS 2007 (consolidated texts)

* [Council Regulation (EEC) No 571/88 of 29 February 1988 on the organization of Community surveys on the structure of agricultural holdings][14]  
* [Commission Decision (EC) No 115/2000 of 24 November 1999 relating to the definitions of the characteristics, the list of agricultural products, the exceptions to the definitions and the regions and districts regarding the surveys on the structure of agricultural holdings][15]  
* [Commission Decision of 7 June 1985 establishing a Community typology for agricultural holdings (85/377/EEC)][16]  

FSS 2010 onwards

* [Commission Regulation (EC) No 1200/2009 of 30 November 2009 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods, as regards livestock unit coefficients and definitions of the characteristics][17]  
* [Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 571/88][18]  
* [Commission Regulation (EC) No 1242/2008 of 8 December 2008 establishing a Community typology for agricultural holdings][19]   
Economic accounts for agriculture
* [Regulation (EC) No 138/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 December 2003 on the economic accounts for agriculture in the Community][20] 
Cereals and other crop products
* [Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council (EC) No 543/2009 of 29 June 2009 concerning crop statistics and repealing Council Regulations (EEC) 837/90 and (EEC) 959/93][21] 
Poultry farming
* [Commission Regulation (EC) No. 617/2008 of 27 June 2008 laying down detailed rules for implementing Regulation (EC) No. 1234/2007 as regards marketing standards for eggs for hatching and farmyard poultry chicks][22] 
Milk and milk products
* [Council Directive No 96/16/EC of 19 March 1996 on statistical surveys of milk and milk products][23]  
* [Commission Decision No 97/80/EC of 18 December 1996 laying down provisions for the implementation of Council Directive No 96/16/EC on statistical surveys of milk and milk products ][24]
Animal production
* [Regulation (EC) No 1165/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 concerning livestock and meat statistics and repealing Council Directives 93/23/EEC, 93/24/EEC and 93/25/EEC ][25]
Wine market
* [Commission Regulation (EC) No 1282/2001 of 28 June 2001 laying down detailed rules for the application of Council Regulation (EC) No 1493/1999 as regards the gathering of information to identify wine products and to monitor the wine market and amending Regulation (EC) No 1623/2000 ][26]

DATA_DESCR Milk statistics are organised in accordance with a well-defined structure: Milk statistics are covered by the following Tables (by alphabetic order): A) Monthly statistics on the collected of cows' milk and products derived therefrom. B) Annual a production and use of milk (all types) in dairies - availability and use. C) Annual a production and use of milk (all types) in agricultural holdings. D) Breakdown of undertakings according to annual amount of milk collection. E) Breakdown of collection centres according to annual amount of milk collection. F) Breakdown of undertakings according to amount of milk processed. G) Breakdown of undertakings according to amount of annual production of certain groups of milk products: - fresh products, - drinking milk, - powdered milk products, - butter, - cheese. H) Protein content of milk products. I) Regional data on production of cows' milk. - in addition, methodological information by Member State is provided. 

CLASS_SYSTEM The classification of milk and milk products complies with a detailed classification introduced with the milk legislation.

STAT_CONC_DEF Milk statistics comprise data on the production, collection and processing of milk and milk products. Monthly, annual and three-yearly surveys are conducted by the various Member States. Input indicators: - quantitative aspect weight of milk (all types) produced on farms, weight of milk (all types) for packaging or processing, weight of cream collected, imports (milk - cream- other). - qualitative aspect amount of fat in milk, amount of protein in milk. Output indicators quantitative aspect Quantities of milk products obtained (each covered by a precise definition): - fresh products (drinking milk, semi-skimmed milk, buttermilk, cream, acidified milk, milk-based drinks, etc), - manufactured products (concentrated milk, milk powder, butter, cheese, casein, whey, etc), - retrocessions, - exports qualitative aspect The indicators used are: - amount of fat in packaged or manufactured products, - amount of protein in packaged or manufactured products, - amount of whole milk or skimmed milk used in manufacture.

STAT_UNIT Surveys are conducted among farms (agricultural holdings) and dairies. Surveys are exhaustive in the case of dairies accounting for at least 95% of the cow's milk collected by the Member State. 

STAT_POP The monthly data may be compiled by sampling. In that case, the sampling error must not exceed 1% of total national collection (with a confidence interval of 68%).  The annual and three-yearly data are compiled exhaustively.

REF_AREA European Union, Member States, EEA/EFTA countries.  The results are compiled at the level of the national territory of the Member States, except for regional data for which the results are compiled at NUTS-2 level.

BASE_PER Data are available since 1960, depending on the data of accession to the EU.

UNIT_MEASURE The units of measure are 1000 tonnes and percentage.

    • Dairy and other animal products (except meat)
      • 00 Fresh products
      • 01 Manufactured products
      • 02 Other milk products (than milk, cream, skimmed milk and buttermilk) delivered to dairies
      • 03 Raw milk, total available on dairies (=total used)
      • 04 Raw milk, differences and losses in dairies
      • 05 Raw milk, other uses by dairies
      • 06 Raw cows' milk delivered to dairies
      • 07 Ewes' milk delivered to dairies
      • 08 Goats' milk delivered to dairies
      • 09 Buffalos' milk delivered to dairies
      • 0a Raw cream delivered to dairies
      • 0b Milk and cream in bulk: Exports
      • 0c Milk and cream in bulk: Exports intra-EU
      • 0d Drinking milk
      • 0e Raw drinking milk
      • 0f Whole milk
      • 0g Imports of whole milk (including raw milk)
      • 0h Imports (intra-EU) of whole milk (including raw milk)
      • 0i Whole milk pasteurised
      • 0j Whole milk sterilised
      • 0k Whole milk uperised
      • 0l Partly skimmed milk
      • 0m Partly skimmed milk pasteurised
      • 0n Partly skimmed milk sterilised
      • 0o Partly skimmed milk uperised
      • 0p Skimmed milk
      • 0q Skimmed milk - returned to the farm
      • 0r Imports of skimmed milk
      • 0s Imports (intra-EU) of skimmed milk
      • 0t Skimmed milk pasteurised
      • 0u Skimmed milk sterilised
      • 0v Skimmed milk uperised
      • 0w Cream for direct consumption
      • 0x Cream of fat content by weight not exceeding 29 %
      • 0y Cream of fat content by weight over 29 %
      • 0z Imports of cream (in milk equivalent)
      • 10 Imports (intra-EU) of cream (in milk equivalent)
      • 11 Powder products
      • 12 Milk and cream powders, excluding skimmed milk powders
      • 13 Whole milk powder
      • 14 Partly skimmed milk powder
      • 15 Skimmed milk powder
      • 16 Cream milk powder
      • 17 Buttermilk powder
      • 18 Other powder products
      • 19 Concentrated milk
      • 1a Concentrated milk not sweetened
      • 1b Concentrated milk sweetened
      • 1c Acidified milk (yoghurts and other)
      • 1d Acidified milk with additives
      • 1e Acidified milk without additives
      • 1f Buttermilk
      • 1g Whey
      • 1h Whey (liquid)
      • 1i Whey (concentrated)
      • 1j Whey (in powder or in block)
      • 1k Lactose (milk sugar)
      • 1l Lactalbumin
      • 1m Butter, incl. dehydrated butter and ghee, and other fats and oils derived from milk; dairy spreads
      • 1n Butter
      • 1o Traditional butter
      • 1p Recombined butter
      • 1q Whey butter
      • 1r Rendered butter and butteroil
      • 1s Other yellow fat dairy products
      • 1t Reduced-fat butter
      • 1u Other yellow fat dairy products (without Reduced-fat butter)
      • 1v Cheese
      • 1w Soft cheese
      • 1x Medium soft cheese
      • 1y Medium hard cheese
      • 1z Hard cheese
      • 20 Extra hard cheese
      • 21 Fresh cheese
      • 22 Cheese from cows'milk (pure)
      • 23 Cheese from ewes milk (pure)
      • 24 Cheese from goats milk (pure)
      • 25 Others (cheese from buffalos'milk (pure) or mixed cheese)
      • 26 Processed cheese
      • 27 Imports of other products
      • 28 Imports (intra-EU) of other products
      • 29 Drinks with a milk base
      • 2a Other fresh products (milk-based desserts, ice cream)
      • 2b Caseins and caseinates
      • 2c Chocolate crumb
      • 2d Other products collected from farm
    • Item of milk
      • 0 Products obtained (1 000 t)
      • 1 Fat content (t)
      • 2 Protein content (t)
      • 3 Utilization of skimmed milk and buttermilk (1 000 t)
      • 4 Utilization of whole milk (1 000 t)
    • Geopolitical entity (reporting)
      • 00 European Union - 27 countries (from 2020)
      • 01 European Union - 28 countries (2013-2020)
      • 02 Belgium
      • 03 Bulgaria
      • 04 Czechia
      • 05 Denmark
      • 06 Germany (until 1990 former territory of the FRG)
      • 07 Estonia
      • 08 Ireland
      • 09 Greece
      • 0a Spain
      • 0b France
      • 0c Croatia
      • 0d Italy
      • 0e Cyprus
      • 0f Latvia
      • 0g Lithuania
      • 0h Luxembourg
      • 0i Hungary
      • 0j Malta
      • 0k Netherlands
      • 0l Austria
      • 0m Poland
      • 0n Portugal
      • 0o Romania
      • 0p Slovenia
      • 0q Slovakia
      • 0r Finland
      • 0s Sweden
      • 0t United Kingdom
      • 0u Iceland
      • 0v Norway
      • 0w Switzerland
      • 0x Montenegro
      • 0y North Macedonia
      • 0z Albania
      • 10 Serbia
      • 11 Turkey