methods, notes and classification Price indices of agricultural products, output (2000 = 100) - monthly data methods, notes and classification

Agriculture

Agricultural statistics

Agricultural statistics were initially designed to monitor the main objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy, e.g. the production and supply of agricultural products and income in the agricultural sector. Today, agricultural statistics cover topics as diverse as

* farm structure,  
* utilisation of farming land,  
* labour input,  
* production,  
* supply/use,  
* prices and the  
* composition of agricultural income.  

Comprehensive information is available at both a national level and a regional level.

During the last 10-15 years new objectives have been introduced in relation to agricultural policy. These include

* protection of the environment,  
* sustainable farming practices,  
* food safety and security, and  
* animal welfare,as well as  
* broader perspectives relating to rural development.   

New indicators and statistics have been developed to provide information relating to these topics, for example, data relating to the use and impact of pesticides and nutrients. Another important priority in agricultural statistics has been to establish statistics that allow the evolution of organic farming to be followed.

Data

Economic accounts for agriculture

The agricultural accounts, a satellite to National Accounts, show detailed results of the income generated by agricultural activities over a given accounting period. Values for output, input, subsidies and taxes are available in current and constant prices. Furthermore, indices for the developments are shown. A main indicator is the real net value added at factor cost (Factor income) of agriculture per total annual work unit. Data are published in December (1st estimate for the year n), March (2nd estimate for the year n-1) and October (final data for the year n-1)

Structure of agricultural holdings

This summarises the main data in the Eurofarm database and contains the results of Community surveys on the structure of agricultural holdings, i.e. labour force, size of holdings, land use, livestock, subsistence farming. This domain also contains the main indicators on the structure of agricultural holdings by region.

Agricultural prices and price indices (EU and candidate countries)

This domain contains quarterly and annual data on agricultural price indices (2005=100) and annual data on absolute prices and agricultural land prices and rents. The agricultural price statistics provide information on the development of producer prices of agricultural products (output) as well as of the purchase prices (input) of the goods and services consumed by agriculture in the production process. Price indices data are available for single commodities and for larger aggregates at the country and EU level.

Agricultural products

This domain includes data shown in physical units (number, weight, quantity):

* land use, annual data;  
* livestock (number and structure), annual data;  
* crop production (area, yield, production), annual data;  
* meat, milk and milk products production and activity of hatcheries (incubation and trade), monthly and annual data; summary data (balance sheets), annual data.  

The countries concerned are the EU-27, candidate countries (Turkey) and other countries (Albania, countries from the former Yugoslavia, Norway).

Orchards survey

This domain contains data on the plantations of seven species of fruit trees: dessert apples, dessert pears, peaches, apricots, oranges, lemons and small-fruited citrus fruits; certain information is also available on cooking apples and cooking pears. The results referring to the characteristics of these species are: age classes, density and varieties, which are recorded per country and production zone.

Vineyard survey

This database contains the results of surveys of areas under vines (basic, every 10 years, and intermediate, annually) carried out by Member States with at least 500 ha under vines in the open air (Germany, Greece, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Spain, Austria and the United Kingdom) in accordance with Council Regulation (EEC) No 357/79 of February 1979. The aim is to assess the situation and developments in the grape-growing sector in the European Union.

Organic farming

‘Organic farming’ can be defined as a method of production which places the highest emphasis on environmental protection and, with regard to livestock production, animal welfare considerations. It avoids or largely reduces the use of synthetic chemical units such as fertilisers, pesticides, additives and medicinal products. It has to be understood as a part of a sustainable farming system and a viable alternative to the more traditional approaches to agriculture.

The database contains a set of summary tables intended to provide an overview of the situation regarding organic farming within the European Economic Area. It includes the number of certified operators (producers, transformers and importers), fully converted and under conversion organic agricultural area and organic livestock. The statistical information contained in the database refers only to organic farming practices that comply with EU legislation.

Regional Agriculture statistics

For the regional level, data are available for economic accounts, land use, animal population, crop production and milk production. The information may be less detailed than the figures for the whole country.

Farm structure

What is available

The Farm structure statistics provide harmonised data on agricultural holdings in the EU, including:

* Number of agricultural holdings  
* Land use and area (crops)  
* Livestock  
* Main crops  
* Farm Labour Force (including age, gender and relationship to the holder)   
* Economic size of the holdings  
* Type of activity  
* Other gainful activity on the farm  
* System of farming  
* Machinery  
* Organic farming   
Uses of the data

The purpose of the Farm structure surveys is to obtain reliable data, at regular intervals, on the structure of agricultural holdings in the European Union in order to:

* Assess the agricultural situation across the EU  
* Monitor trends and transitions in the structure of European farms (agricultural holdings)  
* Manage, evaluate and design the Common Agricultural Policy in its environmental, economical and social aspects.   

FSS data is also used in other policy areas such as environment, regional development and climate change.

Frequency of the surveys
* Every ten years, a full scope survey is carried out in the form of an agricultural census.  
* The Agricultural Census 2010 took place in EU Member States. The data are currently under validation process and the first validated results are published in the database. Provisional results for all countries are available in Statistics Explained: Agricultural census 2010 - provisional results  
* Every 2 or 3 years, between the censuses, sample surveys are carried out. 

The last sample survey was carried out in 2007. See results in the database.

Ad-hoc tables

Ad-hoc tables

Ad-hoc tables can be built for special requests.

Example: agricultural holders by age in the specialist dairying farms

Indeed, not all the information available is online:

* The survey collects 1 record per farm;  
* For each record there is over 200 variables collected; 

from all this information a bit less than 100 tables were designed and are available online in the database.

List of characteristics

See Annex III of Regulation 1166/2008 on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods

Historical results

Farm structure - Historical results - Surveys from 1966/67 to 1997 (PDF)

"This publication is intended to give the reader a picture of changes in the structure of agricultural holdings, in terms of land use, livestock, the labour force and types of farming."

Agricultural production

What is available

Agricultural production data refers to vegetable and animal production that is made available for human consumption and animal feed.

Crop production data include:

* cereals   
* main crops (dried pulses and protein crops, root crops, industrial crops, plants harvested green)  
* vegetables, melons and strawberries  
* permanent crops (fruits, olive trees and vineyards)  
* agricultural land use for utilised agricultural area (arable land, permanent crops, permanent grassland, …)   

and refer to:

* areas under cultivation (cereals and main crops), (expressed in 1 000 hectares),  
* harvested areas (vegetables), (expressed in 1 000 hectares),  
* production area (permanent crops) (expressed in 1 000 hectares),  
* harversted production (expressed in 1 000 tonnes) and  
* yield per hectare (expressed in 100 kg/hectare)   

Animal production data cover:

* bovine animals  
* sheep  
* goats   
* pigs  
* poultry  

And refer to:

* livestock (expressed in number of animals)  
* slaughtering (expressed in number of animals and tonnes)  
* milk and dairy production (quantities produced and used on farm and in dairies)  
* production of eggs for hatching  
* trade of chicks   
Uses of the data

Agricultural production data are used to define policy measures as diverse as:

* Analysing developments in agricultural markets and how they respond to policy actions;  
* Ensuring quality in food and animal feed  
* Promotion of farm products  
* Ensuring animal welfare and health  
* Actions in case of serious animal diseases or human health risk due to agricultural products.  

This data reflects the large diversity of agricultural products that are made available for consumption. Agricultural products are an important part of the cultural identity of European citizens and regions.

Agricultural production data can answer questions such as:
* What are the main crops harvested in the European Union?  
* How much milk is produced for consumption?   
* How is evolving the meat production from different cattle categories?  
* What is the share of cereal production between the Member States?  
* How is the agricultural land used in the Member States?  
* What are the shares of arable land and permanent crops?  
* Which European regions produce the goat and ewe milk?  

Methodology

Structure of agricultural holdings
* [Structure of agricultural holdings - metadata][3]  
* [National methodological reports][4] 
Economic Accounts for Agriculture
* [Economic Accounts for Agriculture - metadata][5]
Agricultural prices and price indices
* [Selling prices of agricultural products (absolute prices), land prices and rents][6]  
* [Price indices of agricultural products][7] 
Agricultural production
* [Agricultural production data - Methodological notes][8]  
* [Crops products: areas and productions][9]  
* [Crops products: supply balances sheets][10]  
* [Livestock and meat][11] 
Structure of orchards and vineyards
* [Orchard][12]  
* [Vineyard ][13]

Legislation

The following list presents the main legal acts relating to agricultural statistics. For more information, please consult EUR-Lex.

Farm Structure

Up to FSS 2007 (consolidated texts)

* [Council Regulation (EEC) No 571/88 of 29 February 1988 on the organization of Community surveys on the structure of agricultural holdings][14]  
* [Commission Decision (EC) No 115/2000 of 24 November 1999 relating to the definitions of the characteristics, the list of agricultural products, the exceptions to the definitions and the regions and districts regarding the surveys on the structure of agricultural holdings][15]  
* [Commission Decision of 7 June 1985 establishing a Community typology for agricultural holdings (85/377/EEC)][16]  

FSS 2010 onwards

* [Commission Regulation (EC) No 1200/2009 of 30 November 2009 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods, as regards livestock unit coefficients and definitions of the characteristics][17]  
* [Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 571/88][18]  
* [Commission Regulation (EC) No 1242/2008 of 8 December 2008 establishing a Community typology for agricultural holdings][19]   
Economic accounts for agriculture
* [Regulation (EC) No 138/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 December 2003 on the economic accounts for agriculture in the Community][20] 
Cereals and other crop products
* [Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council (EC) No 543/2009 of 29 June 2009 concerning crop statistics and repealing Council Regulations (EEC) 837/90 and (EEC) 959/93][21] 
Poultry farming
* [Commission Regulation (EC) No. 617/2008 of 27 June 2008 laying down detailed rules for implementing Regulation (EC) No. 1234/2007 as regards marketing standards for eggs for hatching and farmyard poultry chicks][22] 
Milk and milk products
* [Council Directive No 96/16/EC of 19 March 1996 on statistical surveys of milk and milk products][23]  
* [Commission Decision No 97/80/EC of 18 December 1996 laying down provisions for the implementation of Council Directive No 96/16/EC on statistical surveys of milk and milk products ][24]
Animal production
* [Regulation (EC) No 1165/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 concerning livestock and meat statistics and repealing Council Directives 93/23/EEC, 93/24/EEC and 93/25/EEC ][25]
Wine market
* [Commission Regulation (EC) No 1282/2001 of 28 June 2001 laying down detailed rules for the application of Council Regulation (EC) No 1493/1999 as regards the gathering of information to identify wine products and to monitor the wine market and amending Regulation (EC) No 1623/2000 ][26]

DATA_DESCR The EU Agricultural Price Indices (output and input) comprise: the index of producer prices of agricultural products; the index of purchase prices of the means of agricultural production. The purpose of the price indices is to provide information on trends in producer prices of agricultural products and purchase prices of the means of agricultural production. They are intended to permit a comparison of these trends both between the various Member States and the European Union as a whole and between the different products within a Member State or the European Union. They are also intended to facilitate comparisons between trends in producer prices and trends in purchase prices of the means of agricultural production. They cannot, however, express differences between the Member States in terms of absolute agricultural price levels The following points should be borne in mind when interpreting the EU Agricultural Price Indices: As regards spatial comparisons, the structures of the weights with respect to products and means of production reflect the value of the sales and purchases in each country during the base year. The weights therefore differ from one country to another and this obviously has an effect on trends in the aggregate indices. In comparing the trends in output prices with those in input prices, the field of observation of the latter does not cover, as will be seen later, the whole of the operating expenditure of the agricultural sector. The comparison between quarterly price indices can be made only between the corresponding quarters of different years. The reason is the variation of the weights from quarter to quarter for the output products. In the majority of Member States, national indices of agricultural prices may differ from the EU Agricultural Price Indices in respect of their base, formula or field of observation.

CLASS_SYSTEM The general structure of the EU output and input indices, i.e. the list of groups, subgroups, classes, subclasses and categories for which partial indices should be calculated, is shown in Annex I of the "Handbook for EU agricultural price statistics". However, a number of additional points should also be noted: As the structure of production varies from one country to another, it was left to the discretion of the Member States which representative price series should appear in the subgroup in their own case. When the breakdown of a given level of the classification does not fully cover all the items in the level, a new item Others has been added. The content of this heading could also vary from one country to another quite considerably. Eurostat publishes a combined input price index which comprises the index of the prices of Goods and services for current consumption in agriculture (inputáI) and the index of price of Goods and services contributing to agricultural investment (inputáII). The combined input index does not cover all input items of the agricultural branch and it varies from country to country in its composition. The nomenclature applied in the Agricultural Price Indices is harmonised to the greatest possible extend with the nomenclature of Economic Accounts for Agriculture (EAA) is an integral part of the European system of accounts and therefore for their compilation Eurostat's general classification of economic activities NACE is used. However, it should be noted that few deviations between the two systems exist (agricultural services, FISIM etc.).

STAT_CONC_DEF The purpose of the price indices is to provide information on trends in producer prices of agricultural products and purchase prices of the means of agricultural production. To enable indices of groups of products or an overall index to be compiled from the various elementary indices of prices, it is essential to have a weighting scheme, and the weighting problem is exacerbated in the case of an international index covering several countries. In principle, price indices can relate either to the production of agricultural products and the consumption of the means of production or to sales and purchases, but whichever pairing is chosen the weights must be consistent with them. As the coverage of the EU Agricultural Price Indices are sales and purchases the weights consequently relate to these, and not to production of agricultural products and consumption of the means of agricultural production. The EU Agricultural Price Indices (output and input) comprise: The index of producer prices of agricultural products (output index) is based on the sales of the agricultural products, and the input index is based on the purchases of the means of agricultural production. Several types of indices can be chosen according to the nature of the phenomena they are to describe and to the sources of information available. In most cases however, the principle of the Laspeyres index is at the basis of the index calculation. It can be calculated for a period of several years without being necessary to alter the basket of representative products or the weights. Furthermore the parameters used for the calculation of the indices are well known at the time the base is established. Changes only need to be made when the evolution of the products used and of their relative importance have made the basic structure inappropriate. The value weight attached to each elementary index in the output index is equal to the value of the sales of this product (exclusive of VAT) over the base period. In the framework of the EU Agricultural Price Indices (output), the value of sales should: include the value of production sold to dealers; include the value of direct sales by farmers of crop products made to other agricultural units; include the value of direct sales by farmers on the domestic market; include the value of direct sales by farmers abroad (direct exports); include the value of products processed on the farm, which, except in the case of olive oil and grape must or wine, must be calculated on the basis of the quantities and prices of the raw materials from which they are made; include the value of product related levies/taxes (other than deductible VAT). exclude the value of any monetary compensation received by farmers in respect of the destruction of given quantities of products; exclude the value of subsidies on products which farmers might have received; exclude the value of consumption of own produce on agricultural holdings; exclude the value of products sold from private, non-agricultural gardens; exclude the value of changes in stock; The elementary indices for the prices of animals refer to animals leaving agriculture (slaughter or export) and the weight is calculated as the value of the corresponding sales. Imports of animals are regarded as negligible. By analogy with the output index, the expenditure incurred by farmers in purchasing the means of production, including the purchases of crop products from other agricultural units for intermediate consumption, over the base period constitutes the basic value for calculating the value weights for the input index. This expenditure too is expressed excluding (deductible and reimbursable) VAT. Means of production have to be valued at the purchase price which is the price the purchaser actually pays for the products. It includes taxes less subsidies on products (but excludes deductible taxes like deductible VAT). In the case of the EU Agricultural Price Indices (input), it is assumed by convention that the fertilisers and feedingstuffs purchased are used in the same production period and that there are no stocks on farm. The weights used in the index for Goods and services contributing to agricultural investment represent the expenditure incurred by farmers over the base period in purchasing this kind of goods and services. For a detailed description of the methodology about agricultural price indices (API) see the manual: Handbook for EU Agricultural Price Statistics- version 2.0, March 2008 (See annex at the bottom of the page).

STAT_UNIT Prices should be recorded at points which are as close as possible to those of the transactions which the farmer actually undertakes. This means that product prices should be recorded at the first marketing stage so as to best indicate the actual producer prices received by farmers. Similarly the prices paid by farmers for their means of production should be recorded at the last marketing stage, that at which the items arrive on the farm, so as to best indicate the purchase prices paid by farmers.

STAT_POP The field of observation for a price index covers all the goods and services for which it is desired to measure the price trends. However, there are several concepts which can be distinguished, and these concepts are characterised by a different coverage of agricultural products. Depending on their end use, agricultural products can be divided into two groups: products sold outside the agricultural sector (for direct utilisation or utilisation after processing) or for export; products to be sold within the agricultural sector as means of production, such as animal feeding stuffs, seeds or rearing animals. á

REF_AREA The EU Agricultural Price Indices refer to the Member States at national level. They are not calculated on a regional level.

BASE_PER The Conference of the Directors-General of the National Statistical Institutes of the Community decided that the base for the agricultural indices would be changed every five years with effect from 1970. So a rebasing is done for the years ending in "0" and in "5". The indices in a recent base year should be available every five years in the third year following these base years (i.e. years ending in "3" or "8"). Due to some methodological changes the re-basement in 2005=100 was made with one year delay (2009 instead of 2008). The five-yearly rebasing comprises three major changes: change of the reference year; change of the weighting coefficients to adapt them to changes which have taken place in the last few years in the structure of European agricultural production and in production techniques; update of the data used in order to account for changes in the markets; improvement of harmonisation of the concepts and calculation methods used in the Member States. The general structure of the EU output and input indices, i.e. the list of groups, subgroups, classes, subclasses and categories for which partial indices should be calculated, was changed with the new re-basing for the 2000 = 100 indices. The data are collected via eDamis web forms structured according to the Annex I of the Handbook for EU Agricultural Price Statistics version 2.0, March 2008.

UNIT_MEASURE Agricultural price indices are calculated based on absolute prices.

    • Price adjustment
      • 0 Nominal index
      • 1 Real index
    • Unit of measure
      • 0 Percentage change compared to same period in previous year
      • 1 Index, 2000=100
    • Products
      • 00 CEREALS (including seeds)
      • 01 Wheat and spelt
      • 02 Soft wheat and spelt
      • 03 Durum wheat
      • 04 Rye and meslin
      • 05 Barley
      • 06 Feed barley
      • 07 Malting barley
      • 08 Oats and summer cereal mixtures
      • 09 Grain maize
      • 0a Rice
      • 0b Other cereals
      • 0c INDUSTRIAL CROPS
      • 0d Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits (including seeds)
      • 0e Rape and turnip rape seed
      • 0f Sunflower
      • 0g Soya
      • 0h Other oleaginous products
      • 0i Protein crops (including seeds)
      • 0j Raw tobacco
      • 0k Sugar beet
      • 0l Other industrial crops
      • 0m Fibre plants
      • 0n Hops
      • 0o FORAGE PLANTS
      • 0p Fodder maize
      • 0q Fodder root crops (including forage beet)
      • 0r Other forage plants
      • 0s Hay
      • 0t Straw
      • 0u Silage
      • 0v Other forage plants: others
      • 0w VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTS
      • 0x Fresh vegetables
      • 0y Cauliflower
      • 0z Tomatoes
      • 10 Other fresh vegetables
      • 11 Cabbage
      • 12 Lettuce
      • 13 Spinach
      • 14 Cucumbers
      • 15 Carrots
      • 16 Onions
      • 17 Green beans
      • 18 Pulses
      • 19 Other fresh vegetables: other
      • 1a Plants and flowers
      • 1b POTATOES (including seeds)
      • 1c Potatoes for consumption
      • 1d Early potatoes
      • 1e Main crop potatoes
      • 1f Seed potatoes
      • 1g Other potatoes
      • 1h FRUITS
      • 1i Fresh fruit (excluding citrus fruit and grapes)
      • 1j Dessert apples
      • 1k Dessert pears
      • 1l Peaches
      • 1m Other fresh fruit, nuts and dried fruit
      • 1n Cherries
      • 1o Plums
      • 1p Strawberries
      • 1q Nuts and dried fruit
      • 1r Nuts
      • 1s Dried fruit
      • 1t Other fresh fruit: other
      • 1u Citrus fruit
      • 1v Sweet oranges
      • 1w Mandarins
      • 1x Lemons
      • 1y Tropical fruit
      • 1z Grapes
      • 20 Olives
      • 21 Table olives
      • 22 Other olives
      • 23 WINE
      • 24 Table wine
      • 25 Quality wine
      • 26 Other wine
      • 27 OLIVE OIL
      • 28 OTHER CROP PRODUCTS
      • 29 Vegetable materials used primarily for plaiting
      • 2a Seeds
      • 2b Other crop products: others
      • 2c CROP OUTPUT (010000 to 090000), including fruits (060000) and vegetables (040000)
      • 2d CROP OUTPUT (010000 to 090000), excluding fruits (060000) and vegetables (040000)
      • 2e ANIMALS
      • 2f Cattle
      • 2g Cattle excluding calves
      • 2h Calves
      • 2i Pigs
      • 2j Equines
      • 2k Sheep and goats
      • 2l Poultry
      • 2m Chickens
      • 2n Other poultry
      • 2o Other animals
      • 2p ANIMAL PRODUCTS
      • 2q Milk
      • 2r Cows' milk
      • 2s Other milk types
      • 2t Eggs
      • 2u Other animal products
      • 2v ANIMAL OUTPUT (110000+120000)
      • 2w AGRICULTURAL GOODS OUTPUT (100000+130000), including fruits (060000) and vegetables (040000)
      • 2x AGRICULTURAL GOODS OUTPUT (101000+130000), excluding fruits (060000) and vegetables (040000)
    • Geopolitical entity (reporting)
      • 0 European Union (25 countries)
      • 1 European Union (15 countries)
      • 2 Belgium
      • 3 Bulgaria
      • 4 Czech Republic
      • 5 Denmark
      • 6 Germany (until 1990 former territory of the FRG)
      • 7 Estonia
      • 8 Ireland
      • 9 Greece
      • a Spain
      • b France
      • c Italy
      • d Cyprus
      • e Latvia
      • f Lithuania
      • g Luxembourg
      • h Hungary
      • i Malta
      • j Netherlands
      • k Austria
      • l Poland
      • m Portugal
      • n Romania
      • o Slovenia
      • p Slovakia
      • q Finland
      • r Sweden
      • s United Kingdom
      • t Turkey