methods, notes and classification Unit values at basic prices methods, notes and classification


Agricultural statistics

Agricultural statistics were initially designed to monitor the main objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy, e.g. the production and supply of agricultural products and income in the agricultural sector. Today, agricultural statistics cover topics as diverse as

* farm structure,  
* utilisation of farming land,  
* labour input,  
* production,  
* supply/use,  
* prices and the  
* composition of agricultural income.  

Comprehensive information is available at both a national level and a regional level.

During the last 10-15 years new objectives have been introduced in relation to agricultural policy. These include

* protection of the environment,  
* sustainable farming practices,  
* food safety and security, and  
* animal welfare,as well as  
* broader perspectives relating to rural development.   

New indicators and statistics have been developed to provide information relating to these topics, for example, data relating to the use and impact of pesticides and nutrients. Another important priority in agricultural statistics has been to establish statistics that allow the evolution of organic farming to be followed.


Economic accounts for agriculture

The agricultural accounts, a satellite to National Accounts, show detailed results of the income generated by agricultural activities over a given accounting period. Values for output, input, subsidies and taxes are available in current and constant prices. Furthermore, indices for the developments are shown. A main indicator is the real net value added at factor cost (Factor income) of agriculture per total annual work unit. Data are published in December (1st estimate for the year n), March (2nd estimate for the year n-1) and October (final data for the year n-1)

Structure of agricultural holdings

This summarises the main data in the Eurofarm database and contains the results of Community surveys on the structure of agricultural holdings, i.e. labour force, size of holdings, land use, livestock, subsistence farming. This domain also contains the main indicators on the structure of agricultural holdings by region.

Agricultural prices and price indices (EU and candidate countries)

This domain contains quarterly and annual data on agricultural price indices (2005=100) and annual data on absolute prices and agricultural land prices and rents. The agricultural price statistics provide information on the development of producer prices of agricultural products (output) as well as of the purchase prices (input) of the goods and services consumed by agriculture in the production process. Price indices data are available for single commodities and for larger aggregates at the country and EU level.

Agricultural products

This domain includes data shown in physical units (number, weight, quantity):

* land use, annual data;  
* livestock (number and structure), annual data;  
* crop production (area, yield, production), annual data;  
* meat, milk and milk products production and activity of hatcheries (incubation and trade), monthly and annual data; summary data (balance sheets), annual data.  

The countries concerned are the EU-27, candidate countries (Turkey) and other countries (Albania, countries from the former Yugoslavia, Norway).

Orchards survey

This domain contains data on the plantations of seven species of fruit trees: dessert apples, dessert pears, peaches, apricots, oranges, lemons and small-fruited citrus fruits; certain information is also available on cooking apples and cooking pears. The results referring to the characteristics of these species are: age classes, density and varieties, which are recorded per country and production zone.

Vineyard survey

This database contains the results of surveys of areas under vines (basic, every 10 years, and intermediate, annually) carried out by Member States with at least 500 ha under vines in the open air (Germany, Greece, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Spain, Austria and the United Kingdom) in accordance with Council Regulation (EEC) No 357/79 of February 1979. The aim is to assess the situation and developments in the grape-growing sector in the European Union.

Organic farming

‘Organic farming’ can be defined as a method of production which places the highest emphasis on environmental protection and, with regard to livestock production, animal welfare considerations. It avoids or largely reduces the use of synthetic chemical units such as fertilisers, pesticides, additives and medicinal products. It has to be understood as a part of a sustainable farming system and a viable alternative to the more traditional approaches to agriculture.

The database contains a set of summary tables intended to provide an overview of the situation regarding organic farming within the European Economic Area. It includes the number of certified operators (producers, transformers and importers), fully converted and under conversion organic agricultural area and organic livestock. The statistical information contained in the database refers only to organic farming practices that comply with EU legislation.

Regional Agriculture statistics

For the regional level, data are available for economic accounts, land use, animal population, crop production and milk production. The information may be less detailed than the figures for the whole country.

Farm structure

What is available

The Farm structure statistics provide harmonised data on agricultural holdings in the EU, including:

* Number of agricultural holdings  
* Land use and area (crops)  
* Livestock  
* Main crops  
* Farm Labour Force (including age, gender and relationship to the holder)   
* Economic size of the holdings  
* Type of activity  
* Other gainful activity on the farm  
* System of farming  
* Machinery  
* Organic farming   
Uses of the data

The purpose of the Farm structure surveys is to obtain reliable data, at regular intervals, on the structure of agricultural holdings in the European Union in order to:

* Assess the agricultural situation across the EU  
* Monitor trends and transitions in the structure of European farms (agricultural holdings)  
* Manage, evaluate and design the Common Agricultural Policy in its environmental, economical and social aspects.   

FSS data is also used in other policy areas such as environment, regional development and climate change.

Frequency of the surveys
* Every ten years, a full scope survey is carried out in the form of an agricultural census.  
* The Agricultural Census 2010 took place in EU Member States. The data are currently under validation process and the first validated results are published in the database. Provisional results for all countries are available in Statistics Explained: Agricultural census 2010 - provisional results  
* Every 2 or 3 years, between the censuses, sample surveys are carried out. 

The last sample survey was carried out in 2007. See results in the database.

Ad-hoc tables

Ad-hoc tables

Ad-hoc tables can be built for special requests.

Example: agricultural holders by age in the specialist dairying farms

Indeed, not all the information available is online:

* The survey collects 1 record per farm;  
* For each record there is over 200 variables collected; 

from all this information a bit less than 100 tables were designed and are available online in the database.

List of characteristics

See Annex III of Regulation 1166/2008 on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods

Historical results

Farm structure - Historical results - Surveys from 1966/67 to 1997 (PDF)

"This publication is intended to give the reader a picture of changes in the structure of agricultural holdings, in terms of land use, livestock, the labour force and types of farming."

Agricultural production

What is available

Agricultural production data refers to vegetable and animal production that is made available for human consumption and animal feed.

Crop production data include:

* cereals   
* main crops (dried pulses and protein crops, root crops, industrial crops, plants harvested green)  
* vegetables, melons and strawberries  
* permanent crops (fruits, olive trees and vineyards)  
* agricultural land use for utilised agricultural area (arable land, permanent crops, permanent grassland, …)   

and refer to:

* areas under cultivation (cereals and main crops), (expressed in 1 000 hectares),  
* harvested areas (vegetables), (expressed in 1 000 hectares),  
* production area (permanent crops) (expressed in 1 000 hectares),  
* harversted production (expressed in 1 000 tonnes) and  
* yield per hectare (expressed in 100 kg/hectare)   

Animal production data cover:

* bovine animals  
* sheep  
* goats   
* pigs  
* poultry  

And refer to:

* livestock (expressed in number of animals)  
* slaughtering (expressed in number of animals and tonnes)  
* milk and dairy production (quantities produced and used on farm and in dairies)  
* production of eggs for hatching  
* trade of chicks   
Uses of the data

Agricultural production data are used to define policy measures as diverse as:

* Analysing developments in agricultural markets and how they respond to policy actions;  
* Ensuring quality in food and animal feed  
* Promotion of farm products  
* Ensuring animal welfare and health  
* Actions in case of serious animal diseases or human health risk due to agricultural products.  

This data reflects the large diversity of agricultural products that are made available for consumption. Agricultural products are an important part of the cultural identity of European citizens and regions.

Agricultural production data can answer questions such as:
* What are the main crops harvested in the European Union?  
* How much milk is produced for consumption?   
* How is evolving the meat production from different cattle categories?  
* What is the share of cereal production between the Member States?  
* How is the agricultural land used in the Member States?  
* What are the shares of arable land and permanent crops?  
* Which European regions produce the goat and ewe milk?  


Structure of agricultural holdings
* [Structure of agricultural holdings - metadata][3]  
* [National methodological reports][4] 
Economic Accounts for Agriculture
* [Economic Accounts for Agriculture - metadata][5]
Agricultural prices and price indices
* [Selling prices of agricultural products (absolute prices), land prices and rents][6]  
* [Price indices of agricultural products][7] 
Agricultural production
* [Agricultural production data - Methodological notes][8]  
* [Crops products: areas and productions][9]  
* [Crops products: supply balances sheets][10]  
* [Livestock and meat][11] 
Structure of orchards and vineyards
* [Orchard][12]  
* [Vineyard ][13]


The following list presents the main legal acts relating to agricultural statistics. For more information, please consult EUR-Lex.

Farm Structure

Up to FSS 2007 (consolidated texts)

* [Council Regulation (EEC) No 571/88 of 29 February 1988 on the organization of Community surveys on the structure of agricultural holdings][14]  
* [Commission Decision (EC) No 115/2000 of 24 November 1999 relating to the definitions of the characteristics, the list of agricultural products, the exceptions to the definitions and the regions and districts regarding the surveys on the structure of agricultural holdings][15]  
* [Commission Decision of 7 June 1985 establishing a Community typology for agricultural holdings (85/377/EEC)][16]  

FSS 2010 onwards

* [Commission Regulation (EC) No 1200/2009 of 30 November 2009 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods, as regards livestock unit coefficients and definitions of the characteristics][17]  
* [Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 571/88][18]  
* [Commission Regulation (EC) No 1242/2008 of 8 December 2008 establishing a Community typology for agricultural holdings][19]   
Economic accounts for agriculture
* [Regulation (EC) No 138/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 December 2003 on the economic accounts for agriculture in the Community][20] 
Cereals and other crop products
* [Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council (EC) No 543/2009 of 29 June 2009 concerning crop statistics and repealing Council Regulations (EEC) 837/90 and (EEC) 959/93][21] 
Poultry farming
* [Commission Regulation (EC) No. 617/2008 of 27 June 2008 laying down detailed rules for implementing Regulation (EC) No. 1234/2007 as regards marketing standards for eggs for hatching and farmyard poultry chicks][22] 
Milk and milk products
* [Council Directive No 96/16/EC of 19 March 1996 on statistical surveys of milk and milk products][23]  
* [Commission Decision No 97/80/EC of 18 December 1996 laying down provisions for the implementation of Council Directive No 96/16/EC on statistical surveys of milk and milk products ][24]
Animal production
* [Regulation (EC) No 1165/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 concerning livestock and meat statistics and repealing Council Directives 93/23/EEC, 93/24/EEC and 93/25/EEC ][25]
Wine market
* [Commission Regulation (EC) No 1282/2001 of 28 June 2001 laying down detailed rules for the application of Council Regulation (EC) No 1493/1999 as regards the gathering of information to identify wine products and to monitor the wine market and amending Regulation (EC) No 1623/2000 ][26]

DATA_DESCR The Economic Accounts for Agriculture (EAA) provide detailed information onáincome in the agricultural sector. The purpose is to analyse the production process of the agricultural industry and the primary income generated by this production. The accounts are therefore based on the industry concept. The EAAáaccounts are detailed data on value of output (producer prices and basic prices), intermediate consumption, subsidies and taxes, consumption of fixed capital, rent and interests, capital formation etc. The valuesáare in current as well as in constant prices. Agricultural Labour Input (ALI) and Unit Values (UV)áare an integrated part of theáoverall concept of Economic Accounts for Agriculture. The Economic accounts for agriculture (EAA) are a satellite account of the European System of Accountsá(ESA95), providing complementary information and concepts adapted to the particular nature of the agricultural industry. Although their structure very closely matches that of the national accounts, their compilation requires the formulation of appropriate rules and methods. National Statistical Institutes or Ministries of Agriculture are responsible for data collection and calculation of national EAA, in accordance with EC Regulations. Eurostat is responsible for the EU aggregations. Regional data EAAáaccounts are compiled at regional level (NUTS2), but only in values in current prices.áThe labour input data and Unit values are not broken down to regional level. Please note that for paragraphs where no metadata for regional data has been specified, the regional metadata is identical to the metadata provided for the national data.

CLASS_SYSTEM The EAA is an integral part of the European system of accounts and therefore for their compilation the Eurostat's general classification of economic activities, NACE Rev. 2, is used. The list of activities which defines the agricultural industry corresponds to division 01 of that classification: Crop and animal production, hunting and related service activities.áá Regional data The territorial classification of regional data is broken down according to the NUTS classification. For most countries the regional data is available at NUTS 2 level.

STAT_CONC_DEF A detailed methodology can be found in Annex I of the EAA Regulation and in the Manual on the economic accounts for Agriculture and Forestry EAA/EAF 97 (Rev.1.1). A detailed methodology on agricultural labour input can beáconsulted in Target methodology for agricultural labour input (ALI) statistics (Rev.1). All these documents can be found in the annexes. When differences between the Manuals and the Annex in the regulation are found, pre-eminence should be given to the Annex. The EAAáare satellite accounts of the European System of Accounts (ESA95) providing complementary information and concepts adapted to the particular nature of the agricultural industry. The EAA accounts consist of a sequence of inter-related accounts. As the EAA are based on the industry concept, the sequence of accounts in accordance with the ESA 95 has to be limited to the first accounts of the current accounts: - the production account and - the generation-of-income account whose balancing items are value added and operating surplus, respectively. Nevertheless, it is thought that, given the specific features of agriculture, it should be possible to compile other accounts, at least in part, in so far as the relevant flows can be clearly attributed to them. The accounts in question are the following: - the entrepreneurial income account (one of the current accounts) and - the capital account (one of the accumulation accounts). The Economic Accounts for Agriculture provide a wide range of indicators on the economic activities in the agricultural sector: Output, Intermediate consumption, Gross and net value added, Compensation of employees, Other taxes and subsidies on production, Net operating surplus or net mixed income, Property income, Net entrepreneurial income, etc. at current and at constant prices. Labour indicators are also obtained, where the Annual work units (AWUs) are the most important. AWUs are defined as full-time equivalent employment (corresponding to the number of full-time equivalent jobs), i.e. as total hours worked divided by the average annual number of hours worked in full-time jobs within the economic territory. A distinction is drawn between non-salaried and salaried AWUs, which together make up total AWUs. One person cannot represent more than one AWU. This constraint holds even if someone is working in the agricultural industry for more than the number of hours defining full time. The agricultural labour input of persons who work less than full time on agricultural holdings is calculated as the quotient of the number of hours actually worked (per week or per year) and the number of hours actually worked (per week or per year) in a full-time job.áTotal hours worked do not cover work for the private household of the holder or manager. Unit values refer to the concept of the output of agricultural activity. They are obtained by dividing current values (in producer prices and in basic prices) by the corresponding physical quantities. They differ from prices in that variation in unit values includes any variation in quantity. The following equations illustrate these relationships: Unit value statistics:áááááunit valueá =á (current value) / ( physical quantity)EAA in general:ááááááááááá unit valueá =á ("pure" price) / (volume Three synthetic indicators are defined in the EAA: Indicator A: Index of the real income of factors in agricultural per annual work unit. This yardstick corresponds to the real net value added at factor cost of agriculture per total AWU Indicator B: Index of real net agricultural entrepreneurial income per unpaid annual work unit. This indicator presents the changes in net entrepreneurial income over time, per non-salaried AWU. Indicator C: Net entrepreneurial income of agriculture. This income aggregate is presented as an absolute value (or in the form of an index in real terms). It allows comparability over time of the income of the agricultural industry between Member States. Regional data The concept for compiling of EAA at regional level is described in chapter 7 in the Manual and the definition of unit valuesáis described in chapterá6 in the Manual. The providing of these data is based on a gentlemen's agreement and not on legal base. Not all national tables are necessarily available at regional level. To consult the list of available national- and regional- datasets, please consult the annex.

STAT_UNIT The overall unit is the agricultural sector; However, ináorder to provide more detailed information and to analyse flows generated by the production process and the use of goods and services, it is necessary to select units which emphasise relationships of a technico-economic kind. This requirement means that, as a rule, institutional units must be broken-down into smaller and more homogeneous units with regard to the kind of production. Local kind-of-activity units (local KAUs) are intended to meet this requirement as a first but practically oriented operational approach (ESA 95, 2.105). The local KAU is defined as the part of a KAU which corresponds to a local unit. The KAU groups all the parts of an institutional unit in its capacity as producer contributing to the performance of an activity at class level (four digits) in NACE Rev.á2 (the reference classification for economic activities) and corresponds to one or more operational subdivisions of the institutional unit. The institutional unit's information system must be capable of indicating or calculating for each local KAU at least the value of output, intermediate consumption, compensation of employees, the operating surplus and employment and Gross Fixed Capital Formation (ESA 95, 2.106). The agricultural holding, which is the unit currently used for statistical studies of agriculture (censuses, surveys of the structure of agricultural holdings), is the local KAU most appropriate to the agricultural industry (even though certain other units, such as wine or olive oil cooperatives, or units performing contract work, etc., have to be included in it). Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that the variety of agricultural activities that can be performed on agricultural holdings makes them a special type of local KAU. The strict application of the ESA rule to units and their group should in fact result in a division of the agricultural holding into several separate local KAUs in cases where several activities of the NACE Rev.á2 four-digit class are performed on the same holding. The adoption of the agricultural holding as the local KAU of the agricultural industry in the national accounts and EAA is based on a statistical approach.

STAT_POP Although the ESA gives pre-eminence to local KAUs, the unit best suited to analyse the production process is the unit of homogeneous production. This unit is used to analyse inputs and outputs, since it corresponds exactly to a type of activity. Institutional units are thus divided into as many UHPs as there are activities (other than ancillary). By grouping these units of homogeneous production it is possible to break down the economy into "pure" (homogeneous) branches. A UHP cannot, as a rule, be directly observed. Therefore, the accounts of homogeneous branches cannot be compiled on the basis of groups of UHPs. The ESA describes a method for compiling these accounts. It involves attributing secondary production and the corresponding costs of activity branches to the appropriate homogeneous branches (ESA, 9.53. to 9.61.) The use of the local KAU as the basic unit for the agricultural industry entails recording non-agricultural secondary activities where they cannot be distinguished from the main agricultural activity. Inseparable non-agricultural secondary activities of local agricultural KAUs are defined as activities closely linked to agricultural production for which information on any of output, intermediate consumption, compensation of employees, labour input or GFCF cannot be separated from information on the main agricultural activity during the period of statistical observation. Only that part of a specific non-agricultural secondary activity which is inseparable must be included. As a consequence, a given non-agricultural activity will be included in the agricultural industry if it is impossible to separate it from the main agricultural activity of a local KAU, but will be excluded if it can be separated from the main agricultural activity, in which case the secondary activity gives rise to a non-agricultural local KAU. The selection criterion for inseparable non-agricultural secondary activities is not so much the nature of the product as the type of activity. For example, agro-tourism services provided by a farm must only be included if they cannot be separated from its agricultural activities. This would probably not be the case when these activities become important. Thus, non-agricultural products accounted for in the production of the agricultural industry may vary geographically and over time.

REF_AREA European Union, Candidateáand EFTA countries The regional EAA refersáto NUTS2 as the most detailled level in the countries mentioned.

BASE_PER Accounts for year n are calculated at current prices, at prices of year n-1 and at prices of yeará2000 and 2005. Value, volume and price indices are also obtained for reference years: n-1=100, 2000=100 and 2005=100. Labour input data areáshown as total annual work unitsáand as indicesá2005=100

UNIT_MEASURE Accounts data are given in: Millions of euro (from 1.1.1999)/Millions of ECU (up to 31.12.1998), Millions of national currency (including 'euro fixed' series for euro area countries) MIO_PPS Millions of PPS (Purchasing Power Standard) Furthermore, the core data and the indicators are expressed using indices. The reference years is 2005 = 100 and n-1 = 100, respectively Agricultural labour input data are given in Thousands of annual work units (AWU)á Indices related to 2005=100 Unit value statistics are given in 1000 tonnes (Quantities)á Euro per tonnes (unit value) National currency per tonnes (unit values)

    • List of products - EAA
      • 00 Cereals (including seeds)
      • 01 Wheat and spelt
      • 02 Soft wheat and spelt
      • 03 Durum wheat
      • 04 Rye and meslin
      • 05 Barley
      • 06 Oats and summer cereal mixtures
      • 07 Grain maize
      • 08 Rice
      • 09 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits (including seeds)
      • 0a Rape and turnip rape seed
      • 0b Sunflower
      • 0c Soya
      • 0d Protein crops (including seeds)
      • 0e Raw tobacco
      • 0f Sugar beet
      • 0g Fibre plants
      • 0h Hops
      • 0i Fodder maize
      • 0j Cauliflower
      • 0k Tomatoes
      • 0l POTATOES (including seeds)
      • 0m Dessert apples
      • 0n Dessert pears
      • 0o Peaches
      • 0p Sweet oranges
      • 0q Mandarins
      • 0r Lemons
      • 0s Grapes
      • 0t Olives
      • 0u WINE
      • 0v Table wine
      • 0w Quality wine
      • 0x OLIVE OIL
      • 0y Seeds
      • 0z Cattle
      • 10 Pigs
      • 11 Equines
      • 12 Sheep and goats
      • 13 Poultry
      • 14 Milk
      • 15 Eggs
      • 16 Raw wool
      • 17 BUCKWHEAT
      • 18 TRITICALE
      • 19 DRIED PULSES
      • 1a DRIED PEAS
      • 1b HARICOT BEANS
      • 1e POTATOE SEEDS
      • 1g POPPY
      • 1h PAPRIKA
      • 1i CABBAGES
      • 1j ENDIVES
      • 1k ARTICHOKES
      • 1l FENNEL
      • 1m SALAD
      • 1n CONCUMBERS
      • 1o COURGETTE
      • 1p PEPPER
      • 1q CAROT
      • 1s FRESH PEAS
      • 1u MUSHROOMS
      • 1v APRICOT
      • 1w CHERRIES
      • 1x WALNUTS
      • 1y HAZELNUTS
      • 20 CURRANTS
      • 21 GOOSEBERRY
      • 22 CLEMENTINES
      • 24 CATTLE (excluding calves)
      • 25 CALVES
      • 26 HEIFERS
      • 27 COWS
      • 28 BULLS
      • 29 BEEF
      • 2a SOWS
      • 2c HENS
      • 2d CHICKEN
      • 2e CHICKS
      • 2f CHICKS OF ONE DAY
      • 2g DUCKS
      • 2h GOOSE
      • 2i TURKEYS
      • 2j RABBITS
      • 2k HONEY
    • Unit of measure
      • 0 Euro per tonne
      • 1 National currency per tonne
    • Geopolitical entity (reporting)
      • 0 Belgium
      • 1 Bulgaria
      • 2 Czechia
      • 3 Denmark
      • 4 Germany (until 1990 former territory of the FRG)
      • 5 Estonia
      • 6 Ireland
      • 7 Greece
      • 8 Spain
      • 9 France
      • a Croatia
      • b Italy
      • c Latvia
      • d Lithuania
      • e Luxembourg
      • f Hungary
      • g Malta
      • h Netherlands
      • i Austria
      • j Poland
      • k Portugal
      • l Romania
      • m Slovenia
      • n Slovakia
      • o Finland
      • p Sweden
      • q United Kingdom
      • r Iceland
      • s Norway
      • t Switzerland
      • u North Macedonia